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Showing 221 - 240 of 55724 compounds

Compound ID

Compound

Pathways

PW_C000437

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B-Carotene

B-Carotene is a carotenoid that is a precursor of vitamin A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (porphyria, erythropoietic). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.) -- Pubchem; Carotene is an orange photosynthetic pigment important for photosynthesis. It is responsible for the orange colour of the carrot and many other fruits and vegetables. It contributes to photosynthesis by transmitting the light energy it absorbs to chlorophyll. Chemically, carotene is a terpene. It is the dimer of retinol (vitamin A) and comes in two primary forms: alpha- and beta-carotene. gamma-, delta- and epsilon-carotene also exist. Carotene can be stored in the liver and converted to vitamin A as needed. Beta-carotene is an anti-oxidant and such can be useful for curbing the excess of damaging free radicals in the body. However, the usefulness of beta-carotene as a dietary supplement (i.e. taken as a pill) is still subject to debate. Beta-carotene is fat-soluble, so a small amount of fat is needed to absorb it into the body. -- Wikipedia.

PW_C000440

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PC(16:0/16:0)

PC(16:0/16:0) is a phosphatidylchloline (PC). It is a glycerophospholipid in which a phosphorylcholine moiety occupies a glycerol substitution site. As is the case with diacylglycerols, phosphatidylcholines can have many different combinations of fatty acids of varying lengths and saturation attached to the C-1 and C-2 positions. PC(16:0/16:0), in particular, consists of two hexadecanoyl chains at positions C-1 and C-2. In E. coli, PCs can be found in the integral component of the cell outer membrane. They are hydrolyzed by Phospholipases to a 2-acylglycerophosphocholine and a carboxylate.

PW_C000445

Image HMDB0000570: View Metabocard

Coproporphyrin III

Coproporphyrin III is a porphyrin metabolite arising from heme synthesis. Porphyrins are pigments found in both animal and plant life. Coproporphyrin III is a tetrapyrrole dead-end product from the spontaneous oxidation of the methylene bridges of coproporphynogen, arising from heme synthesis and secreted in feces and urine. Increased levels of coproporphyrins can indicate congenital erythropoietic porphyria or sideroblastic anaemia. Porphyria is a pathological state characterised by abnormalities of porphyrin metabolism and results in the excretion of large quantities of porphyrins in the urine and in extreme sensitivity to light. A large number of factors are capable of increasing porphyrin excretion, owing to different and multiple causes and etiologies: 1) the main site of the chronic hepatic porphyria disease process concentrates on the liver, 2) a functional and morphologic liver injury is almost regularly associated with this chronic porphyria, 3) the toxic form due to occupational and environmental exposure takes mainly a subclinical course. Hepatic factors includes disturbance in coproporphyrinogen metabolism, which results from inhibition of coproporphyrinogen oxidase as well as from the rapid loss from, and diminished utilization of coproporphyrinogen in the hepatocytes, which may also explain why coproporphyrin, its autoxidation product, predominates physiologically in the urine; decreased biliary excretion of coproporphyrin leading to a compensatory urinary excretion, so that the coproporphyrin ring isomer ratio (1:III) becomes a sensitive index for impaired liver function and intrahepatic cholestasis; and disturbed activity of hepatic uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase. In itself, secondary coproporphyrinuria is not associated with porphyria symptoms of a hepatologic-gastroenterologic, neurologic, or dermatologic order, even though coproporphyrinuria can occur with such symptoms. (PMID: 3327428).

PW_C000448

Image HMDB0000574: View Metabocard

L-Cysteine

Cysteine is a naturally occurring, sulfur-containing amino acid that is found in most proteins, although only in small quantities. Cysteine is unique amongst the twenty natural amino acids as it contains a thiol group. Thiol groups can undergo oxidation/reduction (redox) reactions; when cysteine is oxidized it can form cystine, which is two cysteine residues joined by a disulfide bond. This reaction is reversible since the reduction of this disulphide bond regenerates two cysteine molecules. The disulphide bonds of cystine are crucial to defining the structures of many proteins. Cysteine is often involved in electron-transfer reactions, and help the enzyme catalyze its reaction. Cysteine is also part of the antioxidant glutathione. N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is a form of cysteine where an acetyl group is attached to cysteine's nitrogen atom and is sold as a dietary supplement. Cysteine is named after cystine, which comes from the Greek word kustis meaning bladder (cystine was first isolated from kidney stones). Oxidation of cysteine can produce a disulfide bond with another thiol and further oxidation can produce sulphfinic or sulfonic acids. The cysteine thiol group is also a nucleophile and can undergo addition and substitution reactions. Thiol groups become much more reactive when they are ionized, and cysteine residues in proteins have pKa values close to neutrality, so they are often in their reactive thiolate form in the cell. The thiol group also has a high affinity for heavy metals and proteins containing cysteine will bind metals such as mercury, lead, and cadmium tightly. Due to this ability to undergo redox reactions, cysteine has antioxidant properties. Cysteine is an important source of sulfur in human metabolism, and although it is classified as a non-essential amino acid, cysteine may be essential for infants, the elderly, and individuals with certain metabolic disease or who suffer from malabsorption syndromes. Cysteine may at some point be recognized as an essential or conditionally essential amino acid (Wikipedia). Cysteine is important in energy metabolism. As cystine, it is a structural component of many tissues and hormones. Cysteine has clinical uses ranging from baldness to psoriasis to preventing smoker's hack. In some cases, oral cysteine therapy has proved excellent for treatment of asthmatics, enabling them to stop theophylline and other medications. Cysteine also enhances the effect of topically applied silver, tin, and zinc salts in preventing dental cavities. In the future, cysteine may play a role in the treatment of cobalt toxicity, diabetes, psychosis, cancer, and seizures (http://www.dcnutrition.com/AminoAcids/).

PW_C000457

Image HMDB0000586: View Metabocard

Potassium

Potassium is an essential electrolyte. Potassium balance is crucial for regulating the excitability of nerves and muscles and so critical for regulating contractility of cardiac muscle. Although the most important changes seen in the presence of deranged potassium are cardiac, smooth muscle is also affected with increasing muscle weakness, a feature of both hyperkalaemia and hypokalaemia. Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body. Potassium (K+) is a positively charged electrolyte, cation, which is present throughout the body in both intracellular and extracellular fluids. The majority of body potassium, >90%, are intracellular. It moves freely from intracellular fluid (ICF) to extracellular fluid (ECF) and vice versa when adenosine triphosphate increases the permeability of the cell membrane. It is mainly replaced inside or outside the cells by another cation, sodium (Na+). The movement of potassium into or out of the cells is linked to certain body hormones and also to certain physiological states. Standard laboratory tests measure ECF potassium. Potassium enters the body rapidly during food ingestion. Insulin is produced when a meal is eaten; this causes the temporary movement of potassium from ECF to ICF. Over the ensuing hours, the kidneys excrete the ingested potassium and homeostasis is returned. In the critically ill patient, suffering from hyperkalaemia, this mechanism can be manipulated beneficially by administering high concentration (50%) intravenous glucose. Insulin can be added to the glucose, but glucose alone will stimulate insulin production and cause movement of potassium from ECF to ICF. The stimulation of alpha receptors causes increased movement of potassium from ICF to ECF. A noradrenaline infusion can elevate serum potassium levels. An adrenaline infusion, or elevated adrenaline levels, can lower serum potassium levels. Metabolic acidosis causes a rise in extracellular potassium levels. In this situation, excess of hydrogen ions (H+) are exchanged for intracellular potassium ions, probably as a result of the cellular response to a falling blood pH. Metabolic alkalosis causes the opposite effect, with potassium moving into the cells. (PMID: 17883675).

PW_C000458

Image HMDB0000588: View Metabocard

Sodium

Sodium ions are necessary for regulation of blood and body fluids, transmission of nerve impulses, heart activity, and certain metabolic functions. Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body. Sodium is needed by animals, which maintain high concentrations in their blood and extracellular fluids, but the ion is not needed by plants. The human requirement for sodium in the diet is less than 500 mg per day, which is typically less than a tenth as much as many diets "seasoned to taste." Most people consume far more sodium than is physiologically needed. For certain people with salt-sensitive blood pressure, this extra intake may cause a negative effect on health.

PW_C000461

Image HMDB0000593: View Metabocard

PC(18:1(9Z)/18:1(9Z))

PC(18:1(9Z)/18:1(9Z)) is a phosphatidylchloline (PC). It is a glycerophospholipid in which a phosphorylcholine moiety occupies a glycerol substitution site. As is the case with diacylglycerols, phosphatidylcholines can have many different combinations of fatty acids of varying lengths and saturation attached to the C-1 and C-2 positions. PC(18:1(9Z)/18:1(9Z)), in particular, consists of two 9Z-octadecenoyl chains at positions C-1 and C-2. In E. coli, PCs can be found in the integral component of the cell outer membrane. They are hydrolyzed by Phospholipases to a 2-acylglycerophosphocholine and a carboxylate.

PW_C000463

Image HMDB0000595: View Metabocard

Hydrogen carbonate

Bicarbonate, or hydrogen carbonate, is a simple single carbon molecule that plays surprisingly important roles in diverse biological processes. Among these are photosynthesis, the Krebs cycle, whole-body and cellular pH regulation, and volume regulation. Since bicarbonate is charged it is not permeable to lipid bilayers. Mammalian membranes thus contain bicarbonate transport proteins to facilitate the specific transmembrane movement of HCO3(-). Bicarbonate ion is an anion that consists of one central carbon atom surrounded by three oxygen atoms in a trigonal planar arrangement, with a hydrogen atom attached to one of the oxygens. The bicarbonate ion carries a negative one formal charge and is the conjugate base of carbonic acid, H2CO3. The carbonate radical is an elusive and strong one-electron oxidant. Bicarbonate in equilibrium with carbon dioxide constitutes the main physiological buffer. The bicarbonate-carbon dioxide pair stimulates the oxidation, peroxidation and nitration of several biological targets. The demonstration that the carbonate radical existed as an independent species in aqueous solutions at physiological pH and temperature renewed the interest in the pathophysiological roles of this radical and related species. The carbonate radical has been proposed to be a key mediator of the oxidative damage resulting from peroxynitrite production, xanthine oxidase turnover and superoxide dismutase1 peroxidase activity. The carbonate radical has also been proposed to be responsible for the stimulatory effects of the bicarbonate-carbon dioxide pair on oxidations mediated by hydrogen peroxide/transition metal ions. The ultimate precursor of the carbonate radical anion being bicarbonate, carbon dioxide, peroxymonocarbonate or complexes of transition metal ions with bicarbonate-derived species remains a matter of debate. The carbonate radical mediates some of the pathogenic effects of peroxynitrite. The carbonate radical as the oxidant produced from superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1, SOD1) peroxidase activity. Peroxymonocarbonate is a biological oxidant, whose existence is in equilibrium with hydrogen peroxide and bicarbonate. (PMID: 17505962, 17215880).

PW_C000477

Image HMDB0000614: View Metabocard

PS(16:0/16:0)

PS(16:0/16:0) is a phosphatidylserine. It is a glycerophospholipid in which a phosphorylserine moiety occupies a glycerol substitution site. As is the case with diacylglycerols, phosphatidylserines can have many different combinations of fatty acids of varying lengths and saturation attached to the C-1 and C-2 positions. PS(16:0/16:0), in particular, consists of two hexadecanoyl chains at positions C-1 and C-2. Phosphatidylserine or 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine is distributed widely among animals, plants and microorganisms. Phosphatidylserine is an acidic (anionic) phospholipid with three ionizable groups, i.e. the phosphate moiety, the amino group and the carboxyl function. As with other acidic lipids, it exists in nature in salt form, but it has a high propensity to chelate to calcium via the charged oxygen atoms of both the carboxyl and phosphate moieties, modifying the conformation of the polar head group. This interaction may be of considerable relevance to the biological function of phosphatidylserine. While most phospholipids have a saturated fatty acid on C-1 and an unsaturated fatty acid on C-2 of the glycerol backbone, the fatty acid distribution at the C-1 and C-2 positions of glycerol within phospholipids is continually in flux, owing to phospholipid degradation and the continuous phospholipid remodeling that occurs while these molecules are in membranes. Phosphatidylserines typically carry a net charge of -1 at physiological pH. They mostly have palmitic or stearic acid on carbon 1 and a long chain unsaturated fatty acid (e.g. 18:2, 20:4 and 22:6) on carbon 2. PS biosynthesis involves an exchange reaction of serine for ethanolamine in PE.

PW_C000479

Image HMDB0000618: View Metabocard

D-Ribulose 5-phosphate

D-Ribulose 5-phosphate belongs to the class of organic compounds known as pentose phosphates. These are carbohydrate derivatives containing a pentose substituted by one or more phosphate groups. D-Ribulose 5-phosphate is soluble (in water) and a moderately acidic compound (based on its pKa). D-Ribulose 5-phosphate has been found in human prostate tissue, and has also been detected in multiple biofluids, such as saliva and blood. Within the cell, D-ribulose 5-phosphate is primarily located in the endoplasmic reticulum. D-Ribulose 5-phosphate exists in all living organisms, ranging from bacteria to humans. D-Ribulose 5-phosphate participates in a number of enzymatic reactions. In particular, D-Ribulose 5-phosphate can be converted into D-arabinose 5-phosphate through its interaction with the enzymes D-arabinose 5-phosphate isomerase and D-arabinose 5-phosphate isomerase 2. In addition, D-Ribulose 5-phosphate can be biosynthesized from 6-phosphogluconic acid; which is catalyzed by the enzyme 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, decarboxylating. In humans, D-ribulose 5-phosphate is involved in the pentose phosphate pathway. D-Ribulose 5-phosphate is also involved in several metabolic disorders, some of which include ribose-5-phosphate isomerase deficiency, transaldolase deficiency, cancer (via the Warburg effect), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. D-Ribulose 5-phosphate is a metabolite in the Pentose phosphate pathway, Pentose and glucuronate interconversions, and in the Riboflavin metabolism (KEGG).

PW_C000480

Image HMDB0000619: View Metabocard

Cholic acid

Cholic acid is a major primary bile acid produced in the liver and is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion. Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in the bile of mammals. The distinction between different bile acids is minute, and depends only on the presence or absence of hydroxyl groups on positions 3, 7, and 12. Bile acids are physiological detergents that facilitate excretion, absorption, and transport of fats and sterols in the intestine and liver. Bile acids are also steroidal amphipathic molecules derived from the catabolism of cholesterol. They modulate bile flow and lipid secretion, are essential for the absorption of dietary fats and vitamins, and have been implicated in the regulation of all the key enzymes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Bile acids recirculate through the liver, bile ducts, small intestine, and portal vein to form an enterohepatic circuit. They exist as anions at physiological pH, and consequently require a carrier for transport across the membranes of the enterohepatic tissues. The unique detergent properties of bile acids are essential for the digestion and intestinal absorption of hydrophobic nutrients. Bile acids have potent toxic properties (e.g. membrane disruption) and there are a plethora of mechanisms to limit their accumulation in blood and tissues (PMID: 11316487, 16037564, 12576301, 11907135). When present in sufficiently high levels, cholic acid can act as a hepatotoxin and a metabotoxin. A hepatotoxin causes damage to the liver or liver cells. A metabotoxin is an endogenously produced metabolite that causes adverse health effects at chronically high levels. Among the primary bile acids, cholic acid is considered to be the least hepatotoxic while deoxycholic acid is the most hepatoxic (PMID: 1641875). The liver toxicity of bile acids appears to be due to their ability to peroxidate lipids and to lyse liver cells. Chronically high levels of cholic acid are associated with familial hypercholanemia. In hypercholanemia, bile acids, including cholic acid, are elevated in the blood. This disease causes liver damage, extensive itching, poor fat absorption, and can lead to rickets due to lack of calcium in bones. The deficiency of normal bile acids in the intestines results in a deficiency of vitamin K, which also adversely affects clotting of the blood. The bile acid ursodiol (ursodeoxycholic acid) can improve symptoms associated with familial hypercholanemia.

PW_C000487

Image HMDB0000626: View Metabocard

Deoxycholic acid

Deoxycholic acid is a secondary bile acid produced in the liver and is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion. Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in the bile of mammals. The distinction between different bile acids is minute, and depends only on the presence or absence of hydroxyl groups on positions 3, 7, and 12. Bile acids are physiological detergents that facilitate excretion, absorption, and transport of fats and sterols in the intestine and liver. Bile acids are also steroidal amphipathic molecules derived from the catabolism of cholesterol. They modulate bile flow and lipid secretion, are essential for the absorption of dietary fats and vitamins, and have been implicated in the regulation of all the key enzymes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Bile acids recirculate through the liver, bile ducts, small intestine, and portal vein to form an enterohepatic circuit. They exist as anions at physiological pH, and consequently require a carrier for transport across the membranes of the enterohepatic tissues. The unique detergent properties of bile acids are essential for the digestion and intestinal absorption of hydrophobic nutrients. Bile acids have potent toxic properties (e.g. membrane disruption) and there are a plethora of mechanisms to limit their accumulation in blood and tissues (PMID: 11316487, 16037564, 12576301, 11907135). When present in sufficiently high levels, deoxycholic acid can act as a hepatotoxin, a metabotoxin, and an oncometabolite. A hepatotoxin causes damage to the liver or liver cells. A metabotoxin is an endogenously produced metabolite that causes adverse health effects at chronically high levels. An oncometabolite is a compound, when present at chronically high levels, that promotes tumour growth and survival. Among the primary bile acids, cholic acid is considered to be the least hepatotoxic while deoxycholic acid is the most hepatoxic (PMID: 1641875). The liver toxicity of bile acids appears to be due to their ability to peroxidate lipids and to lyse liver cells. High bile acid levels lead to the generation of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, disruption of the cell membrane and mitochondria, induction of DNA damage, mutation and apoptosis, and the development of reduced apoptosis capability upon chronic exposure (PMID: 24884764). Chronically high levels of deoxycholic acid are associated with familial hypercholanemia. In hypercholanemia, bile acids, including deoxycholic acid, are elevated in the blood. This disease causes liver damage, extensive itching, poor fat absorption, and can lead to rickets due to lack of calcium in bones. The deficiency of normal bile acids in the intestines results in a deficiency of vitamin K, which also adversely affects clotting of the blood. The bile acid ursodiol (ursodeoxycholic acid) can improve symptoms associated with familial hypercholanemia. Chronically high levels of deoxycholic acid are also associated with several forms of cancer including colon cancer, pancreatic cancer, esophageal cancer, and many other GI cancers.

PW_C000489

Image HMDB0000629: View Metabocard

Chondroitin

Chondroitin is a mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. Chondrin is a gelatin-like protein-carbohydrate substance that can be obtained by boiling cartilage in water. Cartilage is a connective tissue that contains cells embedded in a matrix of chondrin. Chondroitin is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) composed of a chain of alternating sugars (N-acetyl-galactosamine and glucuronic acid). It is usually found attached to proteins as part of a proteoglycan. A chondroitin chain can have over 100 individual sugars, each of which can be sulfated in variable positions and quantities. The structure depicted in this MetaboCard is simply a disaccharide component of the chontroitin subunit. Chondroitin's functions largely depend on the properties of the overall proteoglycan of which it is a part. These functions can be broadly divided into structural and regulatory roles. However, this division is not absolute and some proteoglycans have both structural and regulatory roles. Chondroitin is an ingredient found commonly in dietary supplements used as an alternative medicine to treat osteoarthritis. It is commonly sold together with glucosamine. The dosage of oral chondroitin used in human clinical trials is 800-1200 mg per day. Most chondroitin appears to be made from extracts of cartilaginous cow and pig tissues (cow trachea and pig ear and nose), but other sources such as shark, fish and bird cartilage are also used. Since chondroitin is not a uniform substance, and is naturally present in a wide variety of forms, the precise composition of each supplement will vary. While it is a prescription or over-the-counter drug in 22 countries, chondroitin is regulated in the U.S. as a food product by the Food and Drug Administration. As a result, there are no mandatory standards for formulation, and no guarantee that the product is correctly labelled.

PW_C000491

Image HMDB0000631: View Metabocard

Deoxycholic acid glycine conjugate

Deoxycholic acid glycine conjugate, or Deoxygcholylglycine, is an acyl glycine and a bile acid-glycine conjugate. It is a secondary bile acid produced by the action of enzymes existing in the microbial flora of the colonic environment. In hepatocytes, both primary and secondary bile acids undergo amino acid conjugation at the C-24 carboxylic acid on the side chain, and almost all bile acids in the bile duct therefore exist in a glycine conjugated form (PMID:16949895). As a bile salt it acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.

PW_C000496

Image HMDB0000637: View Metabocard

Chenodeoxycholic acid glycine conjugate

Chenodeoxycholic acid glycine conjugate is an acyl glycine and a bile acid-glycine conugate. It is a secondary bile acid produced by the action of enzymes existing in the microbial flora of the colonic environment. In hepatocytes, both primary and secondary bile acids undergo amino acid conjugation at the C-24 carboxylic acid on the side chain, and almost all bile acids in the bile duct therefore exist in a glycine conjugated form (PMID:16949895). This compound usually exists as the sodium salt and acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is a cholagogue and choleretic.

PW_C000497

Image HMDB0000638: View Metabocard

Dodecanoic acid

Lauric acid, or dodecanoic acid is the main fatty acid in coconut oil and in palm kernel oil, and is believed to have antimicrobial properties. It is a white, powdery solid with a faint odor of bay oil. Lauric acid, although slightly irritating to mucous membranes, has a very low toxicity and so is used in many soaps and shampoos.

PW_C000500

Image HMDB0000641: View Metabocard

L-Glutamine

Glutamine (Gln) is one of the 20 amino acids encoded by the standard genetic code. Its side chain is an amide; it is formed by replacing a side-chain hydroxyl of glutamic acid with an amine functional group. glutamine is found in foods high in proteins, such as fish, red meat, beans, and dairy products. glutamine is a supplement that is used in weightlifting, bodybuilding, endurance and other sports, as well as by those who suffer from muscular cramps or pain particularly elderly people. The main use of glutamine within the diet of either group is as a means of replenishing the body's stores of amino acids that have been used during exercise or everyday activities. Studies which are looking into problems with excessive consumption of glutamine thus far have proved inconclusive. However, normal supplementation is healthy mainly because glutamine is supposed to be supplemented after prolonged periods of exercise (for example, a workout or exercise in which amino acids are required for use) and replenishes amino acid stores; this being the main reason glutamine is recommended during fasting or for people who suffer from physical trauma, immune deficiencies, or cancer. There is a significant body of evidence that links glutamine-enriched diets with intestinal effects; aiding maintenance of gut barrier function, intestinal cell proliferation and differentiation, as well as generally reducing septic morbidity and the symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome. The reason for such "cleansing" properties is thought to stem from the fact that the intestinal extraction rate of glutamine is higher than that for other amino acids, and is therefore thought to be the most viable option when attempting to alleviate conditions relating to the gastrointestinal tract. These conditions were discovered after comparing plasma concentration within the gut between glutamine-enriched and non glutamine-enriched diets. However, even though glutamine is thought to have "cleansing" properties and effects, it is unknown to what extent glutamine has clinical benefits, due to the varied concentrations of glutamine in varieties of food. It is also known that glutamine has various effects in reducing healing time after operations. Hospital waiting times after abdominal surgery are reduced by providing parenteral nutrition regimens containing amounts of glutamine to patients. Clinical trials have revealed that patients on supplementation regimes containing glutamine have improved nitrogen balances, generation of cysteinyl-leukotrienes from polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes and improved lymphocyte recovery and intestinal permeability (in postoperative patients) - in comparison to those who had no glutamine within their dietary regime; all without any side-effects. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/glutamine).

PW_C000502

Image HMDB0000643: View Metabocard

Coproporphyrin I

Coproporphyrin I is a porphyrin metabolite arising from heme synthesis. Porphyrins are pigments found in both animal and plant life. Coproporphyrin I is a tetrapyrrole dead-end product from the spontaneous oxidation of the methylene bridges of coproporphynogen, arising from heme synthesis and secreted in feces and urine. Increased levels of coproporphyrins can indicate congenital erythropoietic porphyria or sideroblastic anaemia. Porphyria is a pathological state characterised by abnormalities of porphyrin metabolism and results in the excretion of large quantities of porphyrins in the urine and in extreme sensitivity to light. A large number of factors are capable of increasing porphyrin excretion, owing to different and multiple causes and etiologies: 1) the main site of the chronic hepatic porphyria disease process concentrates on the liver, 2) a functional and morphologic liver injury is almost regularly associated with this chronic porphyria, 3) the toxic form due to occupational and environmental exposure takes mainly a subclinical course. Hepatic factors includes disturbance in coproporphyrinogen metabolism, which results from inhibition of coproporphyrinogen oxidase as well as from the rapid loss from, and diminished utilization of coproporphyrinogen in the hepatocytes, which may also explain why coproporphyrin, its autoxidation product, predominates physiologically in the urine; decreased biliary excretion of coproporphyrin leading to a compensatory urinary excretion, so that the coproporphyrin ring isomer ratio (1:III) becomes a sensitive index for impaired liver function and intrahepatic cholestasis; and disturbed activity of hepatic uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase. In itself, secondary coproporphyrinuria is not associated with porphyria symptoms of a hepatologic-gastroenterologic, neurologic, or dermatologic order, even though coproporphyrinuria can occur with such symptoms. (PMID: 3327428).

PW_C000504

Image HMDB0000645: View Metabocard

Galactose 1-phosphate

Galactose 1-phosphate is a member of the class of compounds known as monosaccharide phosphates. Monosaccharide phosphates are monosaccharides comprising a phosphated group linked to the carbohydrate unit. Galactose 1-phosphate is an intermediate in the galactose metabolism and nucleotide sugars metabolism pathways (KEGG). It is formed from galactose by galactokinase (Wikipedia). Galactose 1-phosphate is considered to be soluble (in water) and acidic.

PW_C000510

Image HMDB0000652: View Metabocard

Chondroitin 4-sulfate

Chondroitin 4-sulfate is a derivative of chondroitin which has a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate. An example structure is given, and this Chondroiton sulfate is a polymer that can contain up to 100 individual sugars.
Showing 221 - 240 of 55724 compounds