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Compounds

Showing 70601 - 70650 of 70627 compounds
Compound ID Compound Pathways

PW_C001707

Image HMDB0002789: View Metabocard

Zeaxanthin

Zeaxanthin is a carotenoid xanthophyll and is one of the most common carotenoid found in nature. It is the pigment that gives corn, saffron, and many other plants their characteristic color. Zeaxanthin breaks down to form picrocrocin and safranal, which are responsible for the taste and aroma of saffron Carotenoids are among the most common pigments in nature and are natural lipid soluble antioxidants. Zeaxanthin is one of the two carotenoids (the other is lutein) that accumulate in the eye lens and macular region of the retina with concentrations in the macula greater than those found in plasma and other tissues. Lutein and zeaxanthin have identical chemical formulas and are isomers, but they are not stereoisomers. The main difference between them is in the location of a double bond in one of the end rings. This difference gives lutein three chiral centers whereas zeaxanthin has two. A relationship between macular pigment optical density, a marker of lutein and zeaxanthin concentration in the macula, and lens optical density, an antecedent of cataractous changes, has been suggested. The xanthophylls may act to protect the eye from ultraviolet phototoxicity via quenching reactive oxygen species and/or other mechanisms. Some observational studies have shown that generous intakes of lutein and zeaxanthin, particularly from certain xanthophyll-rich foods like spinach, broccoli and eggs, are associated with a significant reduction in the risk for cataract (up to 20%) and for age-related macular degeneration (up to 40%). While the pathophysiology of cataract and age-related macular degeneration is complex and contains both environmental and genetic components, research studies suggest dietary factors including antioxidant vitamins and xanthophylls may contribute to a reduction in the risk of these degenerative eye diseases. Further research is necessary to confirm these observations. (PMID: 11023002).

PW_C008998

Image HMDB0014638: View Metabocard

Zidovudine

A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia. [PubChem]

PW_C040735

Image HMDB0061727: View Metabocard

Zidovudine 5'-Triphosphate

PW_C009795

Image HMDB0015532: View Metabocard

Zinc

Zinc is an essential element, necessary for sustaining all life. It is a trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body. It is estimated that 3000 of the hundreds of thousands of proteins in the human body contain zinc prosthetic groups. In addition, there are over a dozen cell types in the human body that secrete zinc ions, and the roles of these secreted zinc signals in medicine and health are now being actively studied. Intriguingly, brain cells in the mammalian forebrain are one type of cell that secretes zinc, along with its other neuronal messenger substances. Cells in the salivary gland, prostate, immune system, and intestine are other types that secrete zinc. Obtaining a sufficient zinc intake during pregnancy and in young children is a problem, especially among those who cannot afford a good and varied diet. Zinc deficiency is associated with anemia, short stature, hypogonadism, impaired wound healing, and geophagia. Brain development is stunted by zinc deficiency in utero and in youth. Zinc is an activator of certain enzymes, such as carbonic anhydrase. Carbonic anhydrase is important in the transport of carbon dioxide in vertebrate blood. Even though zinc is an essential requirement for a healthy body, too much zinc can be harmful. Excessive absorption of zinc can also suppress copper and iron absorption. The free zinc ion in solution is highly toxic to plants, invertebrates, and even vertebrate fish. The Free Ion Activity Model (FIAM) is well-established in the literature and shows that just micromolar amounts of the free ion kill some organisms.

PW_C001005

Image HMDB0001303: View Metabocard

Zinc (II) ion

Zinc is an essential element, necessary for sustaining all life.Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body. It is estimated that 3000 of the hundreds of thousands of proteins in the human body contain zinc prosthetic groups. In addition, there are over a dozen types of cells in the human body that secrete zinc ions, and the roles of these secreted zinc signals in medicine and health are now being actively studied. Intriguingly, brain cells in the mammalian forebrain are one type of cell that secretes zinc, along with its other neuronal messenger substances. Cells in the salivary gland, prostate, immune system and intestine are other types that secrete zinc. Obtaining a sufficient zinc intake during pregnancy and in young children is a problem, especially among those who cannot afford a good and varied diet. Brain development is stunted by zinc deficiency in utero and in youth. Zinc is an activator of certain enzymes, such as carbonic anhydrase. Carbonic anhydrase is important in the transport of carbon dioxide in vertebrate blood. Even though zinc is an essential requirement for a healthy body, too much zinc can be harmful. Excessive absorption of zinc can also suppress copper and iron absorption. The free zinc ion in solution is highly toxic to plants, invertebrates, and even vertebrate fish. The Free Ion Activity Model (FIAM) is well-established in the literature, and shows that just micromolar amounts of the free ion kills some organisms.

PW_C008913

Image HMDB0014543: View Metabocard

Zoledronate

Zoledronate (zoledronic acid, marketed by Novartis under the trade names Zometa and Reclast) is a bisphosphonate. Zometa is used to prevent skeletal fractures in patients with cancers such as multiple myeloma and prostate cancer. It can also be used to treat hypercalcemia of malignancy and can be helpful for treating pain from bone metastases. An annual dose of Zoledronate may also prevent recurring fractures in patients with a previous hip fracture. Zoledronate is a single 5 mg infusion for the treatment of Paget's disease of bone. In 2007, the FDA also approved Reclast for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

PW_C044580

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Zymosterol

PW_C002697

Image HMDB0006271: View Metabocard

Zymosterol intermediate 2

Zymosterol is the precursor of cholesterol and is found in the plasma membrane. zymosterol circulates within the cells. The structural features of zymosterol provided optimal substrate acceptability. In human fibroblasts, zymosterol is converted to cholesterol solely in the rough ER. Little or no zymosterol or cholesterol accumulates in the rough ER in vivo. Newly synthesized zymosterol moves to the plasma membrane without a detectable lag and with a half-time of 9 min, about twice as fast as cholesterol. The pool of radiolabeled zymosterol in the plasma membrane turns over rapidly, faster than does intracellular cholesterol. Thus, plasma membrane zymosterol is not stagnant. [3H]Zymosterol pulsed into intact cells is initially found in the plasma membrane. (PMID: 1939176).

PW_C057867

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Ácido láctico

PW_C057849

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Ácido pirúvico

PW_C057848

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Ácido pirúvico

PW_C042934

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α,α-trehalose

PW_C040949

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α-D-glucose 1-phosphate

PW_C040948

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α-D-glucose 6-phosphate

C(OP(=O)([O-])[O-])C1(OC(O)C(O)C(O)C(O)1)

PW_C042903

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α-D-mannose 1-phosphate

PW_C040951

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α-D-mannose 6-phosphate

PW_C040965

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α-L-fucopyranose

PW_C040957

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α-L-rhamnopyranose

PW_C041111

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β-D-fructofuranose

PW_C042917

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β-D-fructofuranose 1-phosphate

PW_C040941

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β-D-fructofuranose 6-phosphate

PW_C042898

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β-D-glucose 1-phosphate

PW_C040942

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β-D-glucose 6-phosphate

PW_C044532

Image HMDB0062087: View Metabocard

β-D-xylopyranose

PW_C044531

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β-L-lyxopyranose

An L-lyxose in cyclic pyranose form.

PW_C040958

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β-L-rhamnopyranose

CC1(OC(C(C(C1O)O)O)O)

PW_C040864

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γ-L-glutamyl 5-phosphate

Showing 70601 - 70650 of 70627 compounds