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Compounds

Showing 36701 - 36750 of 36875 compounds
Compound ID Compound Pathways

PW_C009161

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Tobramycin

Tobramycin is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is an aminoglycoside, broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius. It is effective against gram-negative bacteria, especially the pseudomonas species. It is a 10% component of the antibiotic complex, nebramycin, produced by the same species. [PubChem]Tobramycin binds irreversibly to one of two aminoglycoside binding sites on the 30 S ribosomal subunit, inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis. Tobramycin may also destabilize bacterial memebrane by binding to 16 S 16 S r-RNA. An active transport mechanism for aminoglycoside uptake is necessary in the bacteria in order to attain a significant intracellular concentration of tobramycin.

PW_C009485

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Tocainide

Tocainide is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is an antiarrhythmic agent which exerts a potential- and frequency-dependent block of sodium channels. [PubChem]Tocainide acts on sodium channels on the neuronal cell membrane, limiting the spread of seizure activity and reducing seizure propagation. Tocainide binds preferentially to the inactive state of the sodium channels.The antiarrhythmic actions are mediated through effects on sodium channels in Purkinje fibers.

PW_C009003

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Tolmetin

Tolmetin is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (anti-inflammatory agents, NON-steroidal) similar in mode of action to indomethacin. [PubChem]The mode of action of tolmetin is not known. However, studies in laboratory animals and man have demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory action of tolmetin is not due to pituitary-adrenal stimulation. Tolmetin inhibits prostaglandin synthetase in vitro and lowers the plasma level of prostaglandin E in man. This reduction in prostaglandin synthesis may be responsible for the anti-inflammatory action. Tolmetin does not appear to alter the course of the underlying disease in man.

PW_C007226

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Topaquinone

Topaquinone (TPQ), is the quinone of 2,4,5-trihydroxyphenylalanine. TPQ is the cofactor in most copper-containing amine oxidases. It is produced by post-translational modification of a strictly conserved active-site tyrosine residue with the participation of the copper ion at the active site. Once formed, TPQ acts as a switch between the heterolytic transformation of amine substrates to aldehydes, via a pyridoxal phosphate-like Schiff base complex, and one electron chemistry involving reduction of molecular oxygen (PMID: 12686122).

PW_C008757

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Torasemide

Torasemide (rINN) or torsemide (USAN) is a pyridine-sulfonylurea type loop diuretic mainly used in the management of edema associated with congestive heart failure. It is also used at low doses for the management of hypertension. It is marketed under the brand name Demadex. [Wikipedia]

PW_C008740

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Tramadol

Tramadol is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a narcotic analgesic proposed for moderate to severe pain. It may be habituating. [PubChem] Tramadol and its O-desmethyl metabolite (M1) are selective, weak OP3-receptor agonists. Opiate receptors are coupled with G-protein receptors and function as both positive and negative regulators of synaptic transmission via G-proteins that activate effector proteins. As the effector system is adenylate cyclase and cAMP located at the inner surface of the plasma membrane, opioids decrease intracellular cAMP by inhibiting adenylate cyclase. Subsequently, the release of nociceptive neurotransmitters such as substance P, GABA, dopamine, acetylcholine and noradrenaline is inhibited. The analgesic properties of Tramadol can be attributed to norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake blockade in the CNS, which inhibits pain transmission in the spinal cord. The (+) enantiomer has higher affinity for the OP3 receptor and preferentially inhibits serotonin uptake and enhances serotonin release. The (-) enantiomer preferentially inhibits norepinephrine reuptake by stimulating alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors.

PW_C009018

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Trandolapril

Trandolapril is a non-sulhydryl prodrug that belongs to the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor class of medications. It is metabolized to its biologically active diacid form, trandolaprilat, in the liver. Trandolaprilat inhibits ACE, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of angiotensin I (ATI) to angiotensin II (ATII). ATII regulates blood pressure and is a key component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Trandolapril may be used to treat mild to moderate hypertension, to improve survival following myocardial infarction in clinically stable patients with left ventricular dysfunction, as an adjunct treatment for congestive heart failure, and to slow the rate of progression of renal disease in hypertensive individuals with diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria or overt nephropathy.

PW_C040469

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Trandolaprilat

Trandolaprilat is a metabolite of trandolapril. Trandolapril is an ACE inhibitor used to treat high blood pressure, it may also be used to treat other conditions. It is marketed by Abbott Laboratories with the brand name Mavik. (Wikipedia)

PW_C008836

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Tranexamic Acid

Tranexamic Acid is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is an antifibrinolytic hemostatic used in severe hemorrhage. [PubChem]Tranexamic acid competitively inhibits activation of plasminogen (via binding to the kringle domain), thereby reducing conversion of plasminogen to plasmin (fibrinolysin), an enzyme that degrades fibrin clots, fibrinogen, and other plasma proteins, including the procoagulant factors V and VIII. Tranexamic acid also directly inhibits plasmin activity, but higher doses are required than are needed to reduce plasmin formation.

PW_C006762

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trans-2-Enoyl-OPC4-CoA

trans-2-Enoyl-OPC4-CoA participates in alpha-linolenic acid metabolism. trans-2-Enoyl-OPC4-CoA is converted from OPC4-CoA via acyl-CoA oxidase [EC:1.3.3.6].

PW_C006763

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trans-2-Enoyl-OPC6-CoA

trans-2-Enoyl-OPC6-CoA participates in alpha-linolenic acid metabolism. trans-2-Enoyl-OPC6-CoA is converted from OPC6-CoA via acyl-CoA oxidase [EC:1.3.3.6]. α-linolenic acid is a carboxylic acid with an 18-carbon chain and three cis double bonds. The first double bond is located at the third carbon from the n end. Thus, α-linolenic acid is a polyunsaturated n−3 (omega-3) fatty acid. It is an isomer of γ-linolenic acid, a polyunsaturated n−6 (omega-6) fatty acid.

PW_C002008

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trans-2-Hexenoyl-CoA

trans-Hexenoyl-CoA is an intermediate in fatty acid metabolism. Beta-oxidation occurs in both mitochondria and peroxisomes. Mitochondria catalyze the beta-oxidation of the bulk of short-, medium-, and long-chain fatty acids derived from diet, and this pathway constitutes the major process by which fatty acids are oxidized to generate energy. Peroxisomes are involved in the beta-oxidation chain shortening of long-chain and very-long-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme (CoAs), long-chain dicarboxylyl-CoAs, the CoA esters of eicosanoids, 2-methyl-branched fatty acyl-CoAs, and the CoA esters of the bile acid intermediates di- and trihydroxycoprostanoic acids, and in the process they generate H2O2. Long-chain and very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) are also metabolized by the cytochrome P450 CYP4A omega-oxidation system to dicarboxylic acids that serve as substrates for peroxisomal beta-oxidation. The peroxisomal beta-oxidation system consists of (a) a classical peroxisome proliferator-inducible pathway capable of catalyzing straight-chain acyl-CoAs by fatty acyl-CoA oxidase, L-bifunctional protein, and thiolase, and (b) a second noninducible pathway catalyzing the oxidation of 2-methyl-branched fatty acyl-CoAs by branched-chain acyl-CoA oxidase (pristanoyl-CoA oxidase/trihydroxycoprostanoyl-CoA oxidase), D-bifunctional protein, and sterol carrier protein (SCP)x. trans-Hexenoyl-CoA is the substrate of the enzymes enoyl-coenzyme A reductase, acyl-CoA oxidase [EC 1.3.99.2-1.3.3.6], acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, long-chain-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase [EC 1.3.99.3-1.3.99.13], and Oxidoreductases [EC 1.3.99.-]; trans-Hexenoyl-CoA is an intermediate in fatty acid elongation in mitochondria, being the substrate of the enzymes enoyl-CoA hydratase and long-chain-enoyl-CoA hydratase [EC 4.2.1.17-4.2.1.74]. (PMID: 11375435).

PW_C001204

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trans-2-Octenoic acid

As to unsaturated acids, those with eight carbon atoms, 2-octenoic acid (trans-8: 1[2]) and 2-octynoic acid (8:::1[2]), increase the susceptibility to infection and fluidity while low concentrations of monounsaturated acids with 14 and 18 carbon atoms, myristoleic acid (cis-14:1[9]) and oleic acid (cis-18:1[9]), reduce both the susceptibility to infection and the fluidity of the membrane. [Pubmed 1963884].

PW_C000939

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trans-3-Hydroxycotinine glucuronide

3-Hydroxycotinine (3HC) is the main nicotine metabolite detected in smokers urine. It is also excreted as a glucuronide conjugate (3HC-Gluc). 3HC and 3HC-Gluc account for 40-60% of the nicotine dose in urine.

PW_C000765

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trans-Aconitic acid

trans-Aconitic acid is normally present in normal human urine, and it has been suggested that is present in larger amounts with Reye's syndrome and organic aciduria. trans-Aconitic acid is a substrate of enzyme trans-aconitate 2-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.144) (PMID: 7096501, 4019674, 2950263).

PW_C000742

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trans-Cinnamic acid

Cinnamic acid has the formula C6H5CHCHCOOH and is an odorless white crystalline acid, which is slightly soluble in water. It has a melting point of 133 degree centigrade and a boiling point of 300 degree centigrade.

PW_C006733

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trans-Dec-2-enoic acid

In humans fatty acids are predominantly formed in the liver and adipose tissue, and mammary glands during lactation. trans-Dec-2-enoic acid is an intermediate in fatty acid biosynthesis. Specifically, trans-Dec-2-enoic is converted from (R)-3-Hydroxydecanoic acid via enzyme, fatty-acid Synthase (EC:2.3.1.85).

PW_C043022

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trans-Delta2, cis-delta4-decadienoyl-CoA

PW_C044543

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trans-docos-2-enoyl-CoA

PW_C006736

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trans-Dodec-2-enoic acid

In humans fatty acids are predominantly formed in the liver and adipose tissue, and mammary glands during lactation. trans-Dodec-2-enoic acid is an intermediate in fatty acid biosynthesis. Specifically, trans-Dodec-2-enoic acid is converted from (R)-3-Hydroxydodecanoic acid via two enzymes; fatty-acid Synthase and 3-Hydroxypalmitoyl- [acyl-carrier-protein] dehydratase (EC: 2.3.1.85 and EC: 4.2.1.61).

PW_C006727

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trans-Hex-2-enoic acid

trans-Hex-2-enoic acid is fatty acid formed by the action of fatty acid synthases from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA precursors. It is involved in the pathway, fatty acid biosynthesis. Specifically, it is the product of reaction between (R)-3-Hydroxyhexanoic acid and fatty-acid Synthase.

PW_C006742

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Trans-Hexa-dec-2-enoic acid

In humans fatty acids are predominantly formed in the liver and adipose tissue, and mammary glands during lactation. Trans-hexa-dec-2-enoic acid is an intermediate in fatty acid biosynthesis. Specifically, trans-hexa-dec-2-enoic acid converted from (R)-3-Hydroxy-hexadecanoic acid via two enzymes; fatty-acid Synthase and 3- Hydroxypalmitoyl- [acyl-carrier-protein] dehydratase (EC: 2.3.1.85 and EC: 4.2.1.61).

PW_C002796

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trans-Octadec-2-enoyl-CoA

trans-Octadec-2-enoyl-CoA is an intermediate in Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids. trans-Octadec-2-enoyl-CoA is produced from 3-Hydroxyoctadecanoyl-CoA and then converted to Stearoyl-CoA via enzymatic reaction.

PW_C006739

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trans-Tetra-dec-2-enoic acid

In humans fatty acids are predominantly formed in the liver and adipose tissue, and mammary glands during lactation. trans-tetra-dec-2-enoic acid is an intermediate in fatty acid biosynthesis. Specifically, trans-tetra-dec-2-enoic acid converted from (R)-3-Hydroxy-tetradecanoic acid via two enzymes; fatty-acid Synthase and 3- Hydroxypalmitoyl- [acyl-carrier-protein] dehydratase (EC: 2.3.1.85 and EC: 4.2.1.61).

PW_C057930

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trans-zeatin

The trans-isomer of zeatin.

PW_C057933

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trans-zeatin riboside

A 9-ribosylzeatin having trans-zeatin as the nucleobase (ChEBI ID:71693) .

PW_C000776

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Trehalose

Trehalose, also known as mycose, is a 1-alpha (disaccharide) sugar found extensively but not abundantly in nature. It is thought to be implicated in anhydrobiosis - the ability of plants and animals to withstand prolonged periods of desiccation. The sugar is thought to form a gel phase as cells dehydrate, which prevents disruption of internal cell organelles by effectively splinting them in position. Rehydration then allows normal cellular activity to be resumed without the major, generally lethal damage that would normally follow a dehydration/reyhdration cycle. Trehalose is a non-reducing sugar formed from two glucose units joined by a 1-1 alpha bond giving it the name of alpha-D-glucopyranoglucopyranosyl-1,1-alpha-D-glucopyranoside. The bonding makes trehalose very resistant to acid hydrolysis, and therefore stable in solution at high temperatures even under acidic conditions. The bonding also keeps non-reducing sugars in closed-ring form, such that the aldehyde or ketone end-groups do not bind to the lysine or arginine residues of proteins (a process called glycation). The enzyme trehalase, present but not abundant in most people, breaks it into two glucose molecules, which can then be readily absorbed in the gut. Trehalose is an important components of insects circulating fluid.It acts as a storage form of insect circulating fluid and it is important in respiration.

PW_C000878

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Trehalose 6-phosphate

Trehalose 6-phosphate is a substrate for Hexokinase (type I) and Tryptase beta-1.

PW_C001299

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Triamterene

Pteridine. A pteridine that is used as a mild diuretic. -- Pubchem; Triamterene is a potassium-sparing diuretic used in combination with thiazide diuretics for the treatment of hypertension. -- Wikipedia.

PW_C009454

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Trichlormethiazide

Trichlormethiazide is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a thiazide diuretic with properties similar to those of hydrochlorothiazide. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p830)Trichlormethiazide appears to block the active reabsorption of chloride and possibly sodium in the ascending loop of Henle, altering electrolyte transfer in the proximal tubule. This results in excretion of sodium, chloride, and water and, hence, diuresis. As a diuretic, Trichloromethiazide inhibits active chloride reabsorption at the early distal tubule via the Na-Cl cotransporter, resulting in an increase in the excretion of sodium, chloride, and water. Thiazides like Trichloromethiazide also inhibit sodium ion transport across the renal tubular epithelium through binding to the thiazide sensitive sodium-chloride transporter. This results in an increase in potassium excretion via the sodium-potassium exchange mechanism. The antihypertensive mechanism of Trichloromethiazide is less well understood although it may be mediated through its action on carbonic anhydrases in the smooth muscle or through its action on the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channel, also found in the smooth muscle.

PW_C008201

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Tridecanoyl-CoA

Tridecanoyl-CoA is an acyl-CoA with C-13 fatty acid group as the acyl moiety. Acyl-CoA (or formyl-CoA) is a coenzyme involved in the metabolism of fatty acids. It is a temporary compound formed when coenzyme A (CoA) attaches to the end of a long-chain fatty acid inside living cells. The compound undergoes beta oxidation, forming one or more molecules of acetyl-CoA. This, in turn, enters the citric acid cycle, eventually forming several molecules of ATP. Tridecanoyl-CoA is involved in Phytanic acid peroxisomal oxidation pathway as an intermediate reduction product.

PW_C000725

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Trimethylamine

Trimethylamine, also known as NMe3, N(CH3)3, and TMA, is a colorless, hygroscopic, and flammable simple amine with a typical fishy odor in low concentrations and an ammonia like odor in higher concentrations. Trimethylamine has a boiling point of 2.9 degree centigrade and is a gas at room temperature. Trimethylamine usually comes in pressurized gas cylinders or as a 40% solution in water. Trimethylamine is a nitrogenous base and its positively charged cation is called trimethylammonium cation. A common salt of trimethylamine is trimethylammonium chloride, a hygroscopic colorless solid. -- Wikipedia; Trimethylamine is a product of decomposition of plants and animals. It is the substance mainly responsible for the fishy odor often associated with fouling fish, bacterial vagina infections, and bad breath. It is also associated with taking large doses of choline. -- Wikipedia; Trimethylaminuria is a genetic disorder in which the body is unable to metabolize trimethylamine from food sources. Patients develop a characteristic fish odour of their sweat, urine, and breath after the consumption of choline-rich foods. Trimethylaminuria is an autosomal recessive disorder involving a trimethylamine oxidase deficiency. Trimethylaminuria has also been observed in a certain breed of Rhode Island Red chicken that produces eggs with a fishy smell. -- Wikipedia.

PW_C000738

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Trimethylamine N-oxide

Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is an oxidation product of trimethylamine and a common metabolite in animals and humans. In particular, trimethylamine-N-oxide is biosynthesized endogenously from trimethylamine, which is derived from choline, which can be derived from dietary lecithin (phosphatidylcholines) or dietary carnitine. TMAO decomposes to trimethylamine (TMA), which is the main odorant that is characteristic of degrading seafood. TMAO is an osmolyte that the body will use to counteract the effects of increased concentrations of urea (due to kidney failure) and high levels can be used as a biomarker for kidney problems. Fish odor syndrome or trimethylaminuria is a defect in the production of the enzyme flavin containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) causing incomplete breakdown of trimethylamine from choline-containing food into trimethylamine oxide. Trimethylamine then builds up and is released in the person's sweat, urine, and breath, giving off a strong fishy odor. The concentration of TMAO in the blood increases after consuming foods containing carnitine or lecithin (phosphatidylcholines), if the bacteria that convert those substances to TMAO are present in the gut (PMID: 23614584). High concentrations of carnitine are found in red meat, some energy drinks, and certain dietary supplements; lecithin is found in eggs and is commonly used as an ingredient in processed food. High levels of TMAO are found in many seafoods. Some types of normal gut bacteria (e.g. species of Acinetobacter) in the human gut convert dietary carnitine and dietary lecithin to TMAO (PMID: 21475195). TMAO alters cholesterol metabolism in the intestines, in the liver and in arterial wall. When TMAO is present, cholesterol metabolism is altered and there is an increased deposition of cholesterol within, and decreased removal of cholesterol from, peripheral cells such as those in the artery wall (PMID: 23563705).

PW_C001868

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Triphosphate

Triphosphate is a triphosphate is salt or ester containing three phosphate groups. It is the ionic form of triphosphoric acid, a condensed form of phosphoric acid. Triphosphate is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of Folate, the metabolism of Purine, the metabolism of Porphyrin and chlorophyll, the metabolism of Pyrimidine and the metabolism of Thiamine. It is a substrate for Transforming protein p21/H-Ras-1, Bis(5'-adenosyl)-triphosphatase, Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 5, Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 2, DNA polymerase gamma subunit 1, DNA nucleotidylexotransferase, Inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase, Cob(I)yrinic acid a,c-diamide adenosyltransferase (mitochondrial), Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1, Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 3, Hypothetical protein FLJ13970, Deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase (mitochondrial), Thiamine-triphosphatase, DNA-directed RNA polymerase III 32 kDa polypeptide, Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 4, 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydrobiopterin synthase and Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 6.

PW_C009744

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Trisalicylate-choline

Trisalicylate-choline is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a non-acetylated salicylate used widely as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Trisalicylate significantly reduces methotrexate renal clearance, displacing methotrexate from protein, increasing the fraction unbound by 28%.(PMID: 1728115, 1618240)Trisalicylate-choline inhibits prostaglandin synthesis; acts on the hypothalamus heat-regulating center to reduce fever; blocks the generation of pain impulses

PW_C009722

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Troleandomycin

Troleandomycin is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a macrolide antibiotic that is similar to erythromycin.Troleandomycin acts by penetrating the bacterial cell membrane and reversibly binding to the 50 S subunit of bacterial ribosomes or near the "P" or donor site so that binding of tRNA (transfer RNA) to the donor site is blocked. Translocation of peptides from the "A" or acceptor site to the "P" or donor site is prevented, and subsequent protein synthesis is inhibited.

PW_C000207

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Tryptamine

Tryptamine is a monoamine compound that is common precursor molecule to many hormones and neurotransmitters. Biosynthesis generally proceeds from the amino acid tryptophan, with tryptamine in turn acting as a precursor for other compounds. Substitutions to the tryptamine molecule give rise to a group of compounds collectively known as tryptamines. The most well-known tryptamines are serotonin, an important neurotransmitter, and melatonin, a hormone involved in regulating the sleep-wake cycle.

PW_C044566

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Tryptophol

PW_C000210

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Tyramine

Tyramine is a monoamine compound derived from the amino acid tyrosine. Tyramine is metabolized by the enzyme monoamine oxidase. In foods, it is often produced by the decarboxylation of tyrosine during fermentation or decay. Foods containing considerable amounts of tyramine include fish, chocolate, alcoholic beverages, cheese, soy sauce, sauerkraut, and processed meat. A large dietary intake of tyramine can cause an increase in systolic blood pressure of 30 mmHg or more. Tyramine acts as a neurotransmitter via a G protein-coupled receptor with high affinity for tyramine called TA1. The TA1 receptor is found in the brain as well as peripheral tissues including the kidney. An indirect sympathomimetic, Tyramine can also serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals.

PW_C002115

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Tyrosol

Tyrosol is a phenolic compound present in two of the traditional components of the Mediterranean diet: wine and virgin olive oil. The presence of tyrosol has been described in red and white wines. Tyrosol is also present in vermouth and beer. Tyrosol has been shown to be able to exert antioxidant activity in vitro studies. Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) appears to occur predominantly in arterial intimae in microdomains sequestered from antioxidants of plasma. The antioxidant content of the LDL particle is critical for its protection. The ability of tyrosol to bind human LDL has been reported. The bioavailability of tyrosol in humans from virgin olive oil in its natural form has been demonstrated. Urinary tyrosol increases, reaching a peak at 0-4 h after virgin olive oil administration. Men and women show a different pattern of urinary excretion of tyrosol. Moreover, tyrosol is absorbed in a dose-dependent manner after sustained and moderate doses of virgin olive oil. Tyrosol from wine or virgin olive oil could exert beneficial effects on human health in vivo if its biological properties are confirmed. (PMID 15134375).

PW_C000835

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Ubiquinol 8

Ubiquinol 8 is a ubiquinol in which the polyprenyl substituent is octaprenyl. Ubiquinol-8 is the reduced form of Ubiquinone-8. Ubiquinone (also known as coenzyme Q) is an isoprenoid quinone that functions as an electron carrier in membranes. In eukaryotes ubiquinone is found mostly within the inner mitochondrial membrane, where it functions in respiratory electron transport, transferring two electrons from either complex I (NADH dehydrogenase) or complex II (succinate-ubiquinone reductase) to complex III (bc1 complex). The quinone nucleus of ubiquinone is derived directly from 4-hydroxybenzoate, while the isoprenoid subunits of the polyisoprenoid tail are synthesized via the methylerythritol phosphate pathway, which feeds isoprene units into the Polyprenyl Biosynthesis pathways. The number of isoprenoid subunits in the ubiquinone side chain vary in different species. For example, Saccharomyces cerevisiae has 6 such subunits, Escherichia coli K-12 has 8, rat and mouse have 9, and Homo sapiens has 10. Ubiquinol-8 is effective as an anti-oxidant. By donating one of its hydrogen atoms to become the free-radical semiquinone (.Q-), it can neutralize a lipid peroxyl radical. The free-radical semiquinone is then restored to a non-free-radical state by the respiratory chain Q cycle. ubiquinol or the free-radical semiquinone can also regenerate the Vitamin E tocopheroxyl radical by electron donation (http://www.benbest.com/nutrceut/CoEnzymeQ.html).

PW_C044503

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Ubiquinol-0

The ubiquinol corresponding to ubiquinone-0.

PW_C042948

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Ubiquinol-1

Ubiquinol-1 is a member of the chemical class known as Polyprenylbenzoquinols. They are reduced forms of polyprenylbenzoquinines (ubiquinones). These are compounds containing a polyisoprene chain attached to a quinol at the second ring position. Ubiquiol-1 has just 1 isoprene unit. Normally in E. coli the active form of Ubiquinol has 8 isoprene units (Ubiquinol-8) and in humans it normally has 10. Ubiquinol-1 is a “failed” or incomplete version of Ubiquinol 8 that arises from conjugation by a shortened prenyl tail via 4-hydroxybenzoate polyprenyltransferase. Coenzyme Q(n) exists in three redox states, fully oxidized (ubiquinone), partially reduced (semiquinones or ubisemiquinones), and fully reduced (ubiquinols). The redox functions of ubiquinol in cellular energy production and antioxidant protection are based on the ability to exchange two electrons in a redox cycle between ubiquinol (reduced) and the ubiquinone (oxidized) form. Ubiquionols are important in cellular respiration. They are fat-soluble and therefore mobile in cellular membranes; they play a unique role in the electron transport chain (ETC). In the inner bacterial membrane, electrons from NADH and succinate pass through the ETC to the oxygen, which is then reduced to water. The transfer of electrons through ETC results in the pumping of H+ across the membrane creating a proton gradient across the membrane, which is used by ATP synthase (located on the membrane) to generate ATP.

PW_C008202

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Ubiquinol-10

Ubiquinol-10 is a benzoquinol and is the reduced product of ubiquinone also called coenzyme Q10.The reduction of ubiquinone to ubiquinol occurs in Complexes I&II in the electron transfer chain. The Q cycle is a process that occurs in cytochrome b[, a component of Complex III in the electron transport chain,and that converts ubiquinol to ubiquinone in a cyclic fashion. When ubiquinol binds to cytochrome b, the pKa of the phenolic group decreases so that the proton ionizes and the phenoxide anion is formed (Wikipedia). Ubiquinol-10, the reduced form of ubiquinone-10, efficiently scavenges free radicals generated chemically within liposomal membranes. Ubiquinol-10 is about as effective in preventing peroxidative damage to lipids as alpha-tocopherol, which is considered the best lipid-soluble antioxidant in humans. The number of radicals scavenged by each molecule of ubiquinol-10 is 1.1 under certain experimental conditions. In contrast to alpha-tocopherol, ubiquinol-10 is not recycled by ascorbate. However, it is known that ubiquinol-10 can be recycled by electron transport carriers present in various biomembranes and possibly by some enzymes. It is shown that ubiquinol-10 spares alpha-tocopherol when both antioxidants are present in the same liposomal membranes and that ubiquinol-10, like alpha-tocopherol, does not interact with reduced glutathione.It is suggested that ubiquinol-10 is an important physiological lipid-soluble antioxidant. [PMID: 2352956].

PW_C042953

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Ubiquinol-2

Ubiquinol-2 is a member of the chemical class known as Polyprenylbenzoquinols. They are reduced forms of polyprenylbenzoquinines (ubiquinones). These are compounds containing a polyisoprene chain attached to a quinol at the second ring position. Ubiquiol-2 has just 2 isoprene units. Normally in E. coli the active form of Ubiquinol has 8 isoprene units (Ubiquinol-8) and in humans it normally has 10. Ubiquinol-2 is a “failed” or incomplete version of Ubiquinol 8 that arises from conjugation by a shortened prenyl tail via 4-hydroxybenzoate polyprenyltransferase. Coenzyme Q(n) exists in three redox states, fully oxidized (ubiquinone), partially reduced (semiquinones or ubisemiquinones), and fully reduced (ubiquinols). The redox functions of ubiquinol in cellular energy production and antioxidant protection are based on the ability to exchange two electrons in a redox cycle between ubiquinol (reduced) and the ubiquinone (oxidized) form. Ubiquionols are important in cellular respiration. They are fat-soluble and therefore mobile in cellular membranes; they play a unique role in the electron transport chain (ETC). In the inner bacterial membrane, electrons from NADH and succinate pass through the ETC to the oxygen, which is then reduced to water. The transfer of electrons through ETC results in the pumping of H+ across the membrane creating a proton gradient across the membrane, which is used by ATP synthase (located on the membrane) to generate ATP.

PW_C042954

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Ubiquinol-3

Ubiquinol-3 is a member of the chemical class known as Polyprenylbenzoquinols. They are reduced forms of polyprenylbenzoquinines (ubiquinones). These are compounds containing a polyisoprene chain attached to a quinol at the second ring position. Ubiquiol-3 has just 3 isoprene units. Normally in E. coli the active form of Ubiquinol has 8 isoprene units (Ubiquinol-8) and in humans it normally has 10. Ubiquinol-3 is a “failed” or incomplete version of Ubiquinol 8 that arises from conjugation by a shortened prenyl tail via 4-hydroxybenzoate polyprenyltransferase. Coenzyme Q(n) exists in three redox states, fully oxidized (ubiquinone), partially reduced (semiquinones or ubisemiquinones), and fully reduced (ubiquinols). The redox functions of ubiquinol in cellular energy production and antioxidant protection are based on the ability to exchange two electrons in a redox cycle between ubiquinol (reduced) and the ubiquinone (oxidized) form. Ubiquionols are important in cellular respiration. They are fat-soluble and therefore mobile in cellular membranes; they play a unique role in the electron transport chain (ETC). In the inner bacterial membrane, electrons from NADH and succinate pass through the ETC to the oxygen, which is then reduced to water. The transfer of electrons through ETC results in the pumping of H+ across the membrane creating a proton gradient across the membrane, which is used by ATP synthase (located on the membrane) to generate ATP.

PW_C042955

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Ubiquinol-4

Ubiquinol-4 is a member of the chemical class known as Polyprenylbenzoquinols. They are reduced forms of polyprenylbenzoquinines (ubiquinones). These are compounds containing a polyisoprene chain attached to a quinol at the second ring position. Ubiquiol-4 has just 4 isoprene units. Normally in E. coli the active form of Ubiquinol has 8 isoprene units (Ubiquinol-8) and in humans it normally has 10. Ubiquinol-4 is a “failed” or incomplete version of Ubiquinol 8 that arises from conjugation by a shortened prenyl tail via 4-hydroxybenzoate polyprenyltransferase. Coenzyme Q(n) exists in three redox states, fully oxidized (ubiquinone), partially reduced (semiquinones or ubisemiquinones), and fully reduced (ubiquinols). The redox functions of ubiquinol in cellular energy production and antioxidant protection are based on the ability to exchange two electrons in a redox cycle between ubiquinol (reduced) and the ubiquinone (oxidized) form. Ubiquionols are important in cellular respiration. They are fat-soluble and therefore mobile in cellular membranes; they play a unique role in the electron transport chain (ETC). In the inner bacterial membrane, electrons from NADH and succinate pass through the ETC to the oxygen, which is then reduced to water. The transfer of electrons through ETC results in the pumping of H+ across the membrane creating a proton gradient across the membrane, which is used by ATP synthase (located on the membrane) to generate ATP.

PW_C042956

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Ubiquinol-5

Ubiquinol-5 is a member of the chemical class known as Polyprenylbenzoquinols. They are reduced forms of polyprenylbenzoquinines (ubiquinones). These are compounds containing a polyisoprene chain attached to a quinol at the second ring position. Ubiquiol-5 has just 5 isoprene units. Normally in E. coli the active form of Ubiquinol has 8 isoprene units (Ubiquinol-8) and in humans it normally has 10. Ubiquinol-5 is a “failed” or incomplete version of Ubiquinol 8 that arises from conjugation by a shortened prenyl tail via 4-hydroxybenzoate polyprenyltransferase. Coenzyme Q(n) exists in three redox states, fully oxidized (ubiquinone), partially reduced (semiquinones or ubisemiquinones), and fully reduced (ubiquinols). The redox functions of ubiquinol in cellular energy production and antioxidant protection are based on the ability to exchange two electrons in a redox cycle between ubiquinol (reduced) and the ubiquinone (oxidized) form. Ubiquionols are important in cellular respiration. They are fat-soluble and therefore mobile in cellular membranes; they play a unique role in the electron transport chain (ETC). In the inner bacterial membrane, electrons from NADH and succinate pass through the ETC to the oxygen, which is then reduced to water. The transfer of electrons through ETC results in the pumping of H+ across the membrane creating a proton gradient across the membrane, which is used by ATP synthase (located on the membrane) to generate ATP.

PW_C007831

Image HMDB0012299: View Metabocard

Ubiquinol-6

Ubiquinone(Q) is an essential, lipid soluble, redox component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Much evidence suggests that ubiquinol (QH2) functions as an effective antioxidant in a number of membrane and biological systems by preventing peroxidative damage to lipids. It has been proposed that superoxide dismutase (SOD) may protect QH2 from autoxidation by acting either directly as a superoxide−semiquinone oxidoreductase or indirectly by scavenging superoxide. (Biochemistry, 1996, 35 (21), pp 6595 - 6603).

PW_C041686

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Ubiquinol-7

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