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Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, mitochondrial Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, mitochondrial Cytochrome P450 11B2, mitochondrial Cytochrome P450 11B2, mitochondrial Cytochrome P450 11B2, mitochondrial Steroid 21-hydroxylase 3 beta- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta 5-->4-isomerase type 1 Type-1 angiotensin II receptor Type-1 angiotensin II receptor Gαq Gαq Angiotensin II Deoxycorticosterone Deoxycorticosterone Pregnenolone Pregnenolone Cholesterol O 2 H + Corticosterone H 2 O O 2 18- Hydroxycorticosterone H 2 O O 2 Aldosterone H 2 O Progesterone O 2 H 2 O NAD NADH H + Aldosterone Heme Heme Heme Heme GDP GTP Angiotensin II Reduced adrenal ferredoxin Oxidized adrenal ferredoxin Reduced adrenal ferredoxin Oxidized adrenal ferredoxin Reduced adrenal ferredoxin Oxidized adrenal ferredoxin Reduced acceptor Acceptor Heme Zona Glomerulosa Cell The GPCR activates the G protein by exchanging GDP for GTP. This exchange triggers the dissociation of the Gα subunit from the Gβγ dimer and the receptor. Angiotensin II from the circulation travels to the adrenal cortex through the suprarenal and capsular arteries Capsular Artery Signaling cascade that activates the steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein which triggers cholesterol uptake into the mitochondria Mitochondrion Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Transported into the mitochondrion Adrenal Cortex Aldosterone synthesized from the mitochondria primarily acts on the collecting duct in addition to the distal convoluted tubule to stimulate reabsorption of Na+ Aldosterone goes to act on nephron collecting duct and distal convoluted tubule
Endoplasmic Reticulum Mitochondria STAR GNG2 CYP11A1 CYP11B2 CYP11B2 CYP11B2 CYP21A2 HSD3B1 GNG2 AGTR1 AGTR1 GNB1 GNB1 GNAQ GNAQ Angiotensin II Deoxycorticosterone Deoxycorticosterone Pregnenolone Pregnenolone Cholesterol Oxygen Hydrogen Corticosterone Water Oxygen 18- Hydroxycorticosterone Water Oxygen Aldosterone Water Progesterone Oxygen Water NAD NADH Hydrogen Ion Aldosterone Guanosine diphosphate Guanosine triphosphate Angiotensin II Reduced adrenal ferredoxin Oxidized adrenal ferredoxin Reduced adrenal ferredoxin Oxidized adrenal ferredoxin Reduced adrenal ferredoxin Oxidized adrenal ferredoxin Reduced acceptor Acceptor