Quantitative metabolomics services for biomarker discovery and validation.
Specializing in ready to use metabolomics kits.
Your source for quantitative metabolomics technologies and bioinformatics.

Filter by Pathway Type:



Showing 11 - 20 of 48701 pathways
SMPDB ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins

SMP0030406

Pw031290 View Pathway
Metabolic

Androstenedione Metabolism

Androstenedione is an endogenous weak androgen steroid hormone that is a precursor of testosterone and other androgens, as well as of estrogens like estrone . Its metabolism occurs primarily in the endoplasmic reticulum (membrane-associated enzymes are coloured dark green in the image). Conversion of androstenedione to testosterone requires the enzyme testosterone 17-beta-dehydrogenase 3. Conversion of androstenedione to estrone involves three successive reactions catalyzed by the enzyme aromatase (cytochrome P450 19A1). Androstenedione can also be converted into etiocholanolone glucuronide, androsterone glucuronide, and adrenosterone. The three-reaction subpathway to synthesize etiocholanolone glucuronide begins with the enzyme 3-oxo-5-beta-steroid 4-dehydrogenase catalyzing the conversion of androstenedione to etiocholanedione. This is followed by the conversion of etiocholanedione to etiocholanolone which is catalyzed by aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C4. Lastly, the large membrane-associated multimer UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1 catalyzes the conversion of etiocholanolone to etiocholanolone glucuronide. The three-reaction subpathway to synthesize androsterone glucuronide begins with the conversion of androstenedione to androstanedione via 3-oxo-5-alpha-steroid 4-dehydrogenase 1. Anstrostanedione is then converted into androsterone via aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C4. The last reaction to form androsterone glucuronide is catalyzed by the large multimer UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1. The two-reaction subpathway to synthesize adrenosterone begins in the mitochondrial inner membrane where androstenedione is first converted into 11beta-hydroxyandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione by the enzyme cytochrome P450 11B1. Following transport to the endoplasmic reticulum, 11beta-hydroxyandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione is converted into adrenosterone via corticosteroid 11-beta-dehydrogenase isozyme 1.

SMP0000034

Pw000148 View Pathway
Metabolic

Sphingolipid Metabolism

The sphingolipid metabolism pathway depicted here describes the synthesis of sphingolipids which include sphingomyelins, ceramides, phosphoceramides, glucosylceramides, galactosylceramides, sulfagalactosylceramides, lactosylceramides, and various other ceramides. The core of a sphingolipid is the long-chain amino alcohol called sphingosine. Amino acylation, with a long-chain fatty acid, at the 2-carbon position of sphingosine yields a ceramide. Sphingolipids are a component of all membranes but are particularly abundant in the myelin sheath. De novo sphingolipid synthesis begins at the cytoplasmic side of the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) with the formation of 3-keto-dihydrosphingosine (also known as 3-ketosphinganine) by the enzyme known as serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT). The preferred substrates for this reaction are palmitoyl-CoA and serine. Next, 3-keto-dihydrosphingosine is reduced to form dihydrosphingosine (also known as sphinganine) via the enzyme 3-ketodihydrosphingosine reductase (KDHR), which is also known as 3-ketosphinganine reductase. Dihydrosphingosine (sphinganine) is acylated by the action of several dihydroceramide synthases (CerS) to form dihydroceramide. Dihydroceramide is then desaturated in the original palmitic portion of the lipid via dihydroceramide desaturase 1 (DES1) to form ceramide. Following the conversion to ceramide, sphingosine is released via the action of ceramidase. Sphingosine can be re-converted into a ceramide by condensation with an acyl-CoA catalyzed by the various CerS enzymes. Ceramide may be phosphorylated by ceramide kinase to form ceramide-1-phosphate. Alternatively, it may be glycosylated by glucosylceramide synthase (to form a glucosylceramide) or galactosylceramide synthase (to form a galactosylceramide). Additionally, it can be converted to sphingomyelin by the addition of a phosphorylcholine headgroup by sphingomyelin synthase (SMS). Sphingomyelins are the only sphingolipids that are phospholipids. Diacylglycerol is also generated via this process. Alternately, ceramide may be broken down by a ceramidase to form sphingosine. Sphingosine may be phosphorylated to form sphingosine-1-phosphate, which may, in turn, be dephosphorylated to regenerate sphingosine. Sphingolipid catabolism allows the reversion of these metabolites to ceramide. The complex glycosphingolipids are hydrolyzed to glucosylceramide and galactosylceramide. These lipids are then hydrolyzed by beta-glucosidases and beta-galactosidases to regenerate ceramide. Similarly, sphingomyelins may be broken down by sphingomyelinase to create ceramides and phosphocholine. The only route by which sphingolipids are converted into non-sphingolipids is through sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase. This forms ethanolamine phosphate and hexadecenal.

SMP0000030

Pw000155 View Pathway
Metabolic

Oxidation of Branched-Chain Fatty Acids

In the majority of organisms, fatty acid degradation occurs mostly through the beta-oxidation cycle. In plants, this cycle only happens in the peroxisome, while in mammals this cycle happens in both the peroxisomes and mitochondria. Unfortunately, traditional fatty acid oxidation does not work for branched-chain fatty acids, or fatty acids that do not have an even number of carbons, like the fatty acid phytanic acid, found in animal milk. This acid can not be oxidized through beta-oxidation, as problems arise when water is added at the branched beta-carbon. To be able to oxidize this fatty acid, the carbon is oxidized by oxygen, which removes the initial carboxyl group, which shortens the chain. Now lacking a methyl group, this chain can be beta-oxidized. Now moving to the mitochondria, there are four reactions that occur, and are repeated for each molecule of the fatty acid. Each time the cycle of these reactions is completed, the chain is relieved of two carbons, which are oxidized and are taken away by NADH and FADH2, energy carriers that collect the carbons energy. After beta-oxidation in the cycle of reactions, an acetyl-CoA unit is released and is recycled into the cycle of reactions in the mitochondria, until the chain is fully broken down into acetyl-CoA, and can enter the TCA cycle. Once in the TCA cycle, it is converted to NADH and FADH2, which in turn help move along mitochondrial ATP production. Acetyl-CoA also helps produce ketone bodies that are further converted to energy in the heart and the brain.

SMP0000465

Pw000016 View Pathway
Metabolic

Carnitine Synthesis

Carnitine is an ammonium compound that exists in two stereoisomers, of which only L-carnitine is biologically active. Carnitine can be obtained from dietary sources and also biosynthesized. It is necessary for fatty acid oxidation, transporting fatty acids from the cystosol to the mitochondria, where they are broken down via the citric acid cycle to release energy. Carnitine is synthesized from lysine residues in existing proteins. These residues are methylated using lysine methyltransferase enzymes and methyl groups from S-adenosylmethionine, then removed from the protein via hydrolysis. In the next step, the N6,N6,N6-trimethyl-L-lysine is converted to 3-hydroxy-N6,N6,N6-trimethyl-L-lysine t via the mitochondrial enzyme trimethyllysine dioxygenase. The 3-hydroxy-N6,N6,N6-trimethyl-L-lysine is then cleaved to 4-trimethylammoniobutanal and glycine, likely by an aldose identical to serine hydroxymethyltransferase. Next, 4-trimethylammoniobutanal is oxidized by the 4-trimethylaminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase protein to 4-trimethylammoniobutanoic acid. Finally, 4-trimethylammoniobutanoic acid is transformed into L-carnitine via the enzyme gamma-butyrobetaine dioxygenase. The reactions in the carnitine synthesis pathway occur ubiquitously in the human body with the exception of the last step, as the gamma-butyrobetaine dioxygenase enzyme is found only in the liver and kidney (and at very low levels in the brain). The produced carnitine is then carried to other tissue via a number of transport systems.

SMP0000070

Pw000035 View Pathway
Metabolic

Riboflavin Metabolism

Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is an important part of the enzyme cofactors FAD (flavin-adenine dinucleotide) and FMN (flavin mononucleotide). The name "riboflavin" actually comes from "ribose" and "flavin". Like the other B vitamins, riboflavin is needed for the breaking down and processing of ketone bodies, lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins. Riboflavin is found in many different foods, such as meats and vegetables.As the digestion process occurs, many different flavoproteins that come from food are broken down and riboflavin is reabsorbed. The reverse reaction is mediated by acid phosphatase 6. FMN can be turned into to FAD via FAD synthetase, while the reverse reaction is mediated by nucleotide pyrophosphatase. FAD and FMN are essential hydrogen carriers and are involved in over 100 redox reactions that take part in energy metabolism.

SMP0000716

Pw000693 View Pathway
Metabolic

Thyroid Hormone Synthesis

Thyroid hormone synthesis is a process that occurs in the thyroid gland in humans that results in the production of thyroid hormones which regulate many different processes in the body, such as metabolism, temperature regulation and growth/development. Thyroid hormone synthesis begins in the nucleus of a thyroid follicular cell, as thyroglobulin synthesis occurs here and is transported to the endoplasmic reticulum. From there, thyroglobulin transported through endocytosis into the intracellular space, and then transported through exocytosis to the follicle colloid. There, thyroglobulin is joined by iodide that has been transported from the blood, through the thyroid follicular cell and arrived in the the follicle colloid using pendrin, and hydrogen peroxide to be catalyzed by thyroid peroxidase, creating thyroglobulin + iodotyrosine. Then, iodide, hydrogen peroxide and thyroidperoxidase create thyroglobulin + 3,5-diiodo-L-tyrosine. Thyroglobulin+3,5-diiodo-L-tyrosine then joins with hydrogen peroxide and thyroid peroxidase to create thyroglobulin + 2-aminoacrylic acid and thyroglobulin+liothyronine. Thyroglobulin + liothyronine then goes through two processes, the first being its transportation into the cell and undergoing of proteolysis, which is followed by liothyronine being transported into the bloodstream. The second process is thyroglobulin + liothyronine being catalyzed by thyroid peroxidase and resulting in the production of thyroglobulin + thyroxine. Thyroglobulin + thyroxine is then transported back into the cell, undergoes proteolysis, and thyroxine alone is transported back out of the cell and into the bloodstream.

SMP0000015

Pw000004 View Pathway
Metabolic

Glutathione Metabolism

Glutathione (GSH) is an low-molecular-weight thiol and antioxidant in various species such as plants, mammals and microbes. Glutathione plays important roles in nutrient metabolism, gene expression, etc. and sufficient protein nutrition is important for maintenance of GSH homeostasis. Glutathione is synthesized from glutamate, cysteine, and glycine sequentially by gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and GSH synthetase. L-Glutamic acid and cysteine are synthesized to form gamma-glutamylcysteine by glutamate-cysteine ligase that is powered by ATP. Gamma-glutamylcysteine and glycine can be synthesized to form glutathione by enzyme glutathione synthetase that is powered by ATP, too. Glutathione exists oxidized (GSSG) states and in reduced (GSH) state. Oxidation of glutathione happens due to relatively high concentration of glutathione within cells.

SMP0000058

Pw000150 View Pathway
Metabolic

Starch and Sucrose Metabolism

Amylase enzymes secreted in saliva by the parotid gland and in the small intestine play an important role in initiating starch digestion. The products of starch digestion are but not limited to maltotriose, maltose, limit dextrin, and glucose. The action of enterocytes of the small intestine microvilli further break down limit dextrins and disaccharides into monosaccharides: glucose, galactose, and fructose. Once released from starch or once ingested, sucrose can be degraded into beta-D-fructose and alpha-D-glucose via lysosomal alpha-glucosidase or sucrose-isomaltase. Beta-D-fructose can be converted to beta-D-fructose-6-phosphate by glucokinase and then to alpha-D-glucose-6-phosphate by the action of glucose phosphate isomerase. Phosphoglucomutase 1 can then act on alpha-D-glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) to generate alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate. Alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate (G6P) has several possible fates. It can enter into gluconeogenesis, glycolysis or the nucleotide sugar metabolism pathway. UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase 2 can convert alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate into UDP-glucose, which can then be converted to UDP-xylose or UDP-glucuronate and, eventually to glucuronate. UDP-glucose can also serve as a precursor to the synthesis of glycogen via glycogen synthase. Glycogen is an analogue of amylopectin (“plant starch”) and acts as a secondary short-term energy storage for animal cells. It’s formed primarily in liver and muscle tissues, but is also formed at secondary sites such as the central nervous system and the stomach. In both cases it exists as free granules in the cytosol. Glycogen is a crucial element of the glucose cycle as another enzyme, glycogen phosphorylase, cleaves off glycogen from the nonreducing ends of a chain to producer glucose-1-phosphate monomers. From there, the glucose-1-phosphate monomers have three possible fates: (1) enter the glycolysis pathway as glucose-6—phosphate (G6P) to generate energy, (2) enter the pentose phosphate pathway to produce NADPH and pentose sugar, or (3) enter the gluconeogenesis pathway by being dephosphorylated into glucose in liver or kidney tissues. To initiate the process of glycogen chain-lengthening, glycogenin is required because glycogen synthase can only add to existing chains. This action is subsequently followed by the action of glycogen synthase which catalyzes the formation of polymers of UDP-glucose connected by (α1→4) glycosidic bonds to form a glycogen chain. Importantly, amylo (α1→4) to (α1→6) transglycosylase catalyzes glycogen branch formation via the transfer of 6-7 glucose residues from a nonreducing end with greater than 11 residues to the C-6 OH- group in the interior of a glycogen molecule.

SMP0000007

Pw000011 View Pathway
Metabolic

beta-Alanine Metabolism

Beta-alanine, 3-aminopropanoic acid, is a non-essential amino acid. Beta-Alanine is formed by the proteolytic degradation of beta-alanine containing dipeptides: carnosine, anserine, balenine, and pantothenic acid (vitamin B5). These dipeptides are consumed from protein-rich foods such as chicken, beef, pork, and fish. Beta-Alanine can also be formed in the liver from the breakdown of pyrimidine nucleotides into uracil and dihydrouracil and then metabolized into beta-alanine and beta-aminoisobutyrate. Beta-Alanine can also be formed via the action of aldehyde dehydrogenase on beta-aminoproionaldehyde which is generated from various aliphatic polyamines. Under normal conditions, beta-alanine is metabolized to aspartic acid through the action of glutamate decarboxylase. It addition, it can be converted to malonate semialdehyde and thereby participate in propanoate metabolism. Beta-Alanine is not a proteogenic amino acid. This amino acid is a common athletic supplementation due to its belief to improve performance by increased muscle carnosine levels.

SMP0000008

Pw000042 View Pathway
Metabolic

Phenylalanine and Tyrosine Metabolism

In man, phenylalanine is an essential amino acid which must be supplied in the dietary proteins. Once in the body, phenylalanine may follow any of three paths. It may be (1) incorporated into cellular proteins, (2) converted to phenylpyruvic acid, or (3) converted to tyrosine. Tyrosine is found in many high protein food products such as soy products, chicken, turkey, fish, peanuts, almonds, avocados, bananas, milk, cheese, yogurt, cottage cheese, lima beans, pumpkin seeds, and sesame seeds. Tyrosine can be converted into L-DOPA, which is further converted into dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and epinephrine (adrenaline). Depicted in this pathway is the conversion of phenylalanine to phenylpyruvate (via amino acid oxidase or tyrosine amino transferase acting on phenylalanine), the incorporation of phenylalanine and/or tyrosine into polypeptides (via tyrosyl tRNA synthetase and phenylalyl tRNA synthetase) and the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine via phenylalanine hydroxylase. This reaction functions both as the first step in tyrosine/phenylalanine catabolism by which the body disposes of excess phenylalanine, and as a source of the amino acid tyrosine. The decomposition of L-tyrosine begins with an α-ketoglutarate dependent transamination through the tyrosine transaminase to para-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. The next oxidation step catalyzed by p-hydroxylphenylpyruvate-dioxygenase creates homogentisate. In order to split the aromatic ring of homogentisate, a further dioxygenase, homogentistate-oxygenase, is required to create maleylacetoacetate. Fumarylacetate is created by the action maleylacetoacetate-cis-trans-isomerase through rotation of the carboxyl group created from the hydroxyl group via oxidation. This cis-trans-isomerase contains glutathione as a coenzyme. Fumarylacetoacetate is finally split via fumarylacetoacetate-hydrolase into fumarate (also a metabolite of the citric acid cycle) and acetoacetate (3-ketobutyroate).
Showing 11 - 20 of 48701 pathways