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Showing 11 - 20 of 48701 pathways
SMPDB ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins


Pw000150 View Pathway

Starch and Sucrose Metabolism

Amylase enzymes secreted in saliva by the parotid gland and in the small intestine play an important role in initiating starch digestion. The products of starch digestion are but not limited to maltotriose, maltose, limit dextrin, and glucose. The action of enterocytes of the small intestine microvilli further break down limit dextrins and disaccharides into monosaccharides: glucose, galactose, and fructose. Once released from starch or once ingested, sucrose can be degraded into beta-D-fructose and alpha-D-glucose via lysosomal alpha-glucosidase or sucrose-isomaltase. Beta-D-fructose can be converted to beta-D-fructose-6-phosphate by glucokinase and then to alpha-D-glucose-6-phosphate by the action of glucose phosphate isomerase. Phosphoglucomutase 1 can then act on alpha-D-glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) to generate alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate. Alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate (G6P) has several possible fates. It can enter into gluconeogenesis, glycolysis or the nucleotide sugar metabolism pathway. UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase 2 can convert alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate into UDP-glucose, which can then be converted to UDP-xylose or UDP-glucuronate and, eventually to glucuronate. UDP-glucose can also serve as a precursor to the synthesis of glycogen via glycogen synthase. Glycogen is an analogue of amylopectin (“plant starch”) and acts as a secondary short-term energy storage for animal cells. It’s formed primarily in liver and muscle tissues, but is also formed at secondary sites such as the central nervous system and the stomach. In both cases it exists as free granules in the cytosol. Glycogen is a crucial element of the glucose cycle as another enzyme, glycogen phosphorylase, cleaves off glycogen from the nonreducing ends of a chain to producer glucose-1-phosphate monomers. From there, the glucose-1-phosphate monomers have three possible fates: (1) enter the glycolysis pathway as glucose-6—phosphate (G6P) to generate energy, (2) enter the pentose phosphate pathway to produce NADPH and pentose sugar, or (3) enter the gluconeogenesis pathway by being dephosphorylated into glucose in liver or kidney tissues. To initiate the process of glycogen chain-lengthening, glycogenin is required because glycogen synthase can only add to existing chains. This action is subsequently followed by the action of glycogen synthase which catalyzes the formation of polymers of UDP-glucose connected by (α1→4) glycosidic bonds to form a glycogen chain. Importantly, amylo (α1→4) to (α1→6) transglycosylase catalyzes glycogen branch formation via the transfer of 6-7 glucose residues from a nonreducing end with greater than 11 residues to the C-6 OH- group in the interior of a glycogen molecule.


Pw000011 View Pathway

beta-Alanine Metabolism

Beta-alanine, 3-aminopropanoic acid, is a non-essential amino acid. Beta-Alanine is formed by the proteolytic degradation of beta-alanine containing dipeptides: carnosine, anserine, balenine, and pantothenic acid (vitamin B5). These dipeptides are consumed from protein-rich foods such as chicken, beef, pork, and fish. Beta-Alanine can also be formed in the liver from the breakdown of pyrimidine nucleotides into uracil and dihydrouracil and then metabolized into beta-alanine and beta-aminoisobutyrate. Beta-Alanine can also be formed via the action of aldehyde dehydrogenase on beta-aminoproionaldehyde which is generated from various aliphatic polyamines. Under normal conditions, beta-alanine is metabolized to aspartic acid through the action of glutamate decarboxylase. It addition, it can be converted to malonate semialdehyde and thereby participate in propanoate metabolism. Beta-Alanine is not a proteogenic amino acid. This amino acid is a common athletic supplementation due to its belief to improve performance by increased muscle carnosine levels.


Pw000042 View Pathway

Phenylalanine and Tyrosine Metabolism

In man, phenylalanine is an essential amino acid which must be supplied in the dietary proteins. Once in the body, phenylalanine may follow any of three paths. It may be (1) incorporated into cellular proteins, (2) converted to phenylpyruvic acid, or (3) converted to tyrosine. Tyrosine is found in many high protein food products such as soy products, chicken, turkey, fish, peanuts, almonds, avocados, bananas, milk, cheese, yogurt, cottage cheese, lima beans, pumpkin seeds, and sesame seeds. Tyrosine can be converted into L-DOPA, which is further converted into dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and epinephrine (adrenaline). Depicted in this pathway is the conversion of phenylalanine to phenylpyruvate (via amino acid oxidase or tyrosine amino transferase acting on phenylalanine), the incorporation of phenylalanine and/or tyrosine into polypeptides (via tyrosyl tRNA synthetase and phenylalyl tRNA synthetase) and the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine via phenylalanine hydroxylase. This reaction functions both as the first step in tyrosine/phenylalanine catabolism by which the body disposes of excess phenylalanine, and as a source of the amino acid tyrosine. The decomposition of L-tyrosine begins with an α-ketoglutarate dependent transamination through the tyrosine transaminase to para-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. The next oxidation step catalyzed by p-hydroxylphenylpyruvate-dioxygenase creates homogentisate. In order to split the aromatic ring of homogentisate, a further dioxygenase, homogentistate-oxygenase, is required to create maleylacetoacetate. Fumarylacetate is created by the action maleylacetoacetate-cis-trans-isomerase through rotation of the carboxyl group created from the hydroxyl group via oxidation. This cis-trans-isomerase contains glutathione as a coenzyme. Fumarylacetoacetate is finally split via fumarylacetoacetate-hydrolase into fumarate (also a metabolite of the citric acid cycle) and acetoacetate (3-ketobutyroate).


Pw122406 View Pathway

Pancreas Function - Delta Cell

Pancreatic delta cells produce somatostatin which functions to inhibit glucagon, insulin, and itself. Somatostatin is stored in granules in the delta cell and is released in response to an increase in blood sugar, calcium, and blood amino acids during absorption of a meal. In the process of somatostatin secretion, glucose must first undergo glycolysis in the mitochondrion to increase ATP in the cell. The inside of the alpha cell then becomes electrically positive due to the closure of potassium channels that were inhibited by ATP. From this closure, the potassium is no longer being shuttled out of the cell, thus depolarizing the cell due to the extra intracellular potassium. The resulting action potential from the increased membrane potential causes the voltage gate calcium channels to open, creating an influx of calcium into the cell. This triggers the exocytosis of somatostatin granules from the delta cell.


Pw000162 View Pathway

Urea Cycle

Urea, also known as carbamide, is a waste product made by a large variety of living organisms and is the main component of urine. Urea is created in the liver, through a string of reactions that are called the Urea Cycle. This cycle is also called the Ornithine Cycle, as well as the Krebs-Henseleit Cycle. There are some essential compounds required for the completion of this cycle, such as arginine, citrulline and ornithine. Arginine cleaves and creates urea and ornithine, and the reactions that follow see urea residue build up on ornithine, which recreates arginine and keeps the cycle going. Ornithine is transported to the mitochondrial matrix, and once there, ornithine carbamoyltransferase uses carbamoyl phosphate to create citrulline. After this, citrulline is transported to the cytosol. Once here, citrulline and aspartate team up to create argininosuccinic acid. After this, argininosuccinate lyase creates l-arginine. L-arginine finally uses arginase-1 to create ornithine again, which will be transported to the mitochondrial matrix and restart the urea cycle once more.


Pw000030 View Pathway

Malate-Aspartate Shuttle

The malate-aspartate shuttle system, also called the malate shuttle, is an essential system used by mitochondria, that allows electrons to move across the impermeable membrane between the cytosol and the mitochondrial matrix. The electrons are created during glycolysis, and are needed for oxidative phosphorylation. The malate-aspartate shuttle is needed as the inner membrane is not permeable to NADH or NAD+, but is permeable to the ions that attach to malate. When the malate gets inside the membrane,the energy inside of malate is taken out by creating NADH from NAD+, which regenerates oxaloacetate. NADH can then transfer electrons to the electron transport chain.


Pw000143 View Pathway

Inositol Metabolism

The carbocyclic polyol inositol (otherwise known as myo-inositol) has a significant role in physiological systems as many secondary eukaryotic messengers derive their structure from inositol. Examples of secondary messengers derived from inositol include inositol phosphates, phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) lipids. Inositol is abundant in many commonly consumed foods such as bran-rich cereals, beans, nuts, and fruit (particularly cantaloupe, melons, and oranges). It can also be synthesized by the body through the conversion of glucose-6-phosphate into mho-inositol under the following pathway: (1) glucose-6-phosphate undergoes isomerization due to the action of inositol-3-phosphate synthase (ASYNA1) which produces myo-inositol 3-phosphate; (2) myo-inositol 3-phosphate undergoes dephosphorylation via the action of inositol monophosphatase (IMPase 1) to produce myo-inositol. From this point, myo-inositol can move through multiple different fates depending on the secondary messenger being synthesized. For phosphatidyliositol, phosphatidylinositol synthase generates it with the substrates CDP-diacylglycerol and myo-inositol. Phosphatidyliositol can be modified further to generate phosphatidylinositol phosphate lipids via the action of class I, II and III phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI 3-kinases). Other messengers (i.e. inositol phosphates) can be produced with the phospholipase C-mediated hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol phosphates or with the action of other enzymes that remove or add phosphate groups.


Pw031290 View Pathway

Androstenedione Metabolism

Androstenedione is an endogenous weak androgen steroid hormone that is a precursor of testosterone and other androgens, as well as of estrogens like estrone . Its metabolism occurs primarily in the endoplasmic reticulum (membrane-associated enzymes are coloured dark green in the image). Conversion of androstenedione to testosterone requires the enzyme testosterone 17-beta-dehydrogenase 3. Conversion of androstenedione to estrone involves three successive reactions catalyzed by the enzyme aromatase (cytochrome P450 19A1). Androstenedione can also be converted into etiocholanolone glucuronide, androsterone glucuronide, and adrenosterone. The three-reaction subpathway to synthesize etiocholanolone glucuronide begins with the enzyme 3-oxo-5-beta-steroid 4-dehydrogenase catalyzing the conversion of androstenedione to etiocholanedione. This is followed by the conversion of etiocholanedione to etiocholanolone which is catalyzed by aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C4. Lastly, the large membrane-associated multimer UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1 catalyzes the conversion of etiocholanolone to etiocholanolone glucuronide. The three-reaction subpathway to synthesize androsterone glucuronide begins with the conversion of androstenedione to androstanedione via 3-oxo-5-alpha-steroid 4-dehydrogenase 1. Anstrostanedione is then converted into androsterone via aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C4. The last reaction to form androsterone glucuronide is catalyzed by the large multimer UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1. The two-reaction subpathway to synthesize adrenosterone begins in the mitochondrial inner membrane where androstenedione is first converted into 11beta-hydroxyandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione by the enzyme cytochrome P450 11B1. Following transport to the endoplasmic reticulum, 11beta-hydroxyandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione is converted into adrenosterone via corticosteroid 11-beta-dehydrogenase isozyme 1.


Pw000148 View Pathway

Sphingolipid Metabolism

The sphingolipid metabolism pathway depicted here describes the synthesis of sphingolipids which include sphingomyelins, ceramides, phosphoceramides, glucosylceramides, galactosylceramides, sulfagalactosylceramides, lactosylceramides, and various other ceramides. The core of a sphingolipid is the long-chain amino alcohol called sphingosine. Amino acylation, with a long-chain fatty acid, at the 2-carbon position of sphingosine yields a ceramide. Sphingolipids are a component of all membranes but are particularly abundant in the myelin sheath. De novo sphingolipid synthesis begins at the cytoplasmic side of the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) with the formation of 3-keto-dihydrosphingosine (also known as 3-ketosphinganine) by the enzyme known as serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT). The preferred substrates for this reaction are palmitoyl-CoA and serine. Next, 3-keto-dihydrosphingosine is reduced to form dihydrosphingosine (also known as sphinganine) via the enzyme 3-ketodihydrosphingosine reductase (KDHR), which is also known as 3-ketosphinganine reductase. Dihydrosphingosine (sphinganine) is acylated by the action of several dihydroceramide synthases (CerS) to form dihydroceramide. Dihydroceramide is then desaturated in the original palmitic portion of the lipid via dihydroceramide desaturase 1 (DES1) to form ceramide. Following the conversion to ceramide, sphingosine is released via the action of ceramidase. Sphingosine can be re-converted into a ceramide by condensation with an acyl-CoA catalyzed by the various CerS enzymes. Ceramide may be phosphorylated by ceramide kinase to form ceramide-1-phosphate. Alternatively, it may be glycosylated by glucosylceramide synthase (to form a glucosylceramide) or galactosylceramide synthase (to form a galactosylceramide). Additionally, it can be converted to sphingomyelin by the addition of a phosphorylcholine headgroup by sphingomyelin synthase (SMS). Sphingomyelins are the only sphingolipids that are phospholipids. Diacylglycerol is also generated via this process. Alternately, ceramide may be broken down by a ceramidase to form sphingosine. Sphingosine may be phosphorylated to form sphingosine-1-phosphate, which may, in turn, be dephosphorylated to regenerate sphingosine. Sphingolipid catabolism allows the reversion of these metabolites to ceramide. The complex glycosphingolipids are hydrolyzed to glucosylceramide and galactosylceramide. These lipids are then hydrolyzed by beta-glucosidases and beta-galactosidases to regenerate ceramide. Similarly, sphingomyelins may be broken down by sphingomyelinase to create ceramides and phosphocholine. The only route by which sphingolipids are converted into non-sphingolipids is through sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase. This forms ethanolamine phosphate and hexadecenal.


Pw000155 View Pathway

Oxidation of Branched-Chain Fatty Acids

In the majority of organisms, fatty acid degradation occurs mostly through the beta-oxidation cycle. In plants, this cycle only happens in the peroxisome, while in mammals this cycle happens in both the peroxisomes and mitochondria. Unfortunately, traditional fatty acid oxidation does not work for branched-chain fatty acids, or fatty acids that do not have an even number of carbons, like the fatty acid phytanic acid, found in animal milk. This acid can not be oxidized through beta-oxidation, as problems arise when water is added at the branched beta-carbon. To be able to oxidize this fatty acid, the carbon is oxidized by oxygen, which removes the initial carboxyl group, which shortens the chain. Now lacking a methyl group, this chain can be beta-oxidized. Now moving to the mitochondria, there are four reactions that occur, and are repeated for each molecule of the fatty acid. Each time the cycle of these reactions is completed, the chain is relieved of two carbons, which are oxidized and are taken away by NADH and FADH2, energy carriers that collect the carbons energy. After beta-oxidation in the cycle of reactions, an acetyl-CoA unit is released and is recycled into the cycle of reactions in the mitochondria, until the chain is fully broken down into acetyl-CoA, and can enter the TCA cycle. Once in the TCA cycle, it is converted to NADH and FADH2, which in turn help move along mitochondrial ATP production. Acetyl-CoA also helps produce ketone bodies that are further converted to energy in the heart and the brain.
Showing 11 - 20 of 48701 pathways