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Showing 31 - 40 of 48701 pathways
SMPDB ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins

SMP0059881

Pw060826 View Pathway
Drug Action

Acrivastine H1-Antihistamine Action

Acrivastine is a second-generation alkylamine H1-antihistamine. H1-antihistamines interfere with the agonist action of histamine at the H1 receptor and are administered to attenuate inflammatory process in order to treat conditions such as allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and urticaria. Reducing the activity of the NF-κB immune response transcription factor through the phospholipase C and the phosphatidylinositol (PIP2) signalling pathways also decreases antigen presentation and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, cell adhesion molecules, and chemotactic factors. Furthermore, lowering calcium ion concentration leads to increased mast cell stability which reduces further histamine release. First-generation antihistamines readily cross the blood-brain barrier and cause sedation and other adverse central nervous system (CNS) effects (e.g. nervousness and insomnia). Second-generation antihistamines are more selective for H1-receptors of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and do not cross the blood-brain barrier. Consequently, these newer drugs elicit fewer adverse drug reactions.

SMP0063764

Pw064756 View Pathway
Protein

Activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, PKA

cAMP dependent protein kinase is a signalling molecule, found in the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells. Cellular regulation and signal transduction in eukaryotic cells is driven by the phosphorylation of proteins. cAMP dependent protein kinase is created as an active enzyme, which is made possible by a fully phosphorylated activation loop.

SMP0000749

Pw000726 View Pathway
Signaling

Activation of PKC Through G Protein-Coupled Receptor

G protein-coupled receptors sense stimuli outside the cell and transmit signals across the plasma membrane. Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) is one of the common signaling pathways. When a class of GPCRs are activated by a ligand, they activate Gq protein to bind GTP instead of GDP. After the Gq becomes active, it activates phospholipase C (PLC) to cleave the membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) into inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacyl glycerol (DAG). IP3 can bind Ins3P receptor to open calcium channel by diffusion from cytoplasm to ER. Activated calcium channel will release the calcium from ER into cytoplasm. Calcium can activate the kinase activity of PKC.

SMP0000344

Pw000174 View Pathway
Disease

Acute Intermittent Porphyria

Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), also called Swedish porphyria, is a rare inborn error of metabolism (IEM) and autosomal dominant disorder of heme biosynthesis caused by a defective HMBS gene. The HMBS gene codes for the protein hydroxymethylbilane synthase (porphobilinogen deaminase) which catalyzes the synthesis of porphobilinogen into hydroxymethylbilane. This disorder is characterized by a large accumulation of 5-aminolevulinic acid or porphobilinogen in both urine and serum. Most patients are asymptomatic between attacks. Symptoms of the disorder include abdominal pain, constipation, vomiting, hypertension, muscle weakness, seizures, delirium, coma, and depression. Treatment involves undertaking a high-carbohydrate diet and, during severe attacks, a glucose 10% infusion. It is estimated that AIP affects 5.9 per 1 000 000 people.

SMP0000418

Pw000436 View Pathway
Drug Action

Adefovir Dipivoxil Action Pathway

Adefovir dipivoxil is an ester prodrug of adefovir, a nucleotide analogue used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. Adefovir dipivoxil is taken up into the liver cell and is cleaved into adefovir by intracellular esterases. Adefovir is subsequently phosphorylated first by adenylate kinases and then by nucleoside diphosphate kinases into adefovir diphosphate. Adefovir diphosphate is an analogue of deoxyadenosine triphosphate (dATP) and competes with dATP for binding to the viral DNA polymerase and subsequent incorporation into the growing DNA strand. Once incorporated into the DNA, adefovir causes chain termination, thus preventing viral replication.

SMP0000629

Pw000605 View Pathway
Drug Metabolism

Adefovir Dipivoxil Metabolism Pathway

Adefovir dipivoxil is an ester prodrug of adefovir, a nucleotide analogue used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. Adefovir dipivoxil is taken up into the liver cell and is cleaved into adefovir by intracellular esterases. Adefovir is subsequently phosphorylated first by adenylate kinases and then by nucleoside diphosphate kinases into adefovir diphosphate. Adefovir diphosphate is an analogue of deoxyadenosine triphosphate (dATP) and competes with dATP for binding to the viral DNA polymerase and subsequent incorporation into the growing DNA strand. Once incorporated into the DNA, adefovir causes chain termination, thus preventing viral replication.

SMP0000535

Pw000511 View Pathway
Disease

Adenine Phosphoribosyltransferase Deficiency (APRT)

Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency, which is also known as APRTD or APRT deficiency, is a rare inherited inborn error of metabolism (IEM) leading to the recurrent formation of kidney stones. It is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with a mutation in the enzyme adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT). APRT is involved in the nucleotide salvage pathway, which provides an alternative, and energetically more efficient route to nucleotide biosynthesis in humans and most other animals. A defect in this enzyme can lead to the accumulation of the insoluble purine known as 2,8-dihydroxyadenine. In particular, when APRT has reduced or nonexistent activity, adenine accumulates which is then degraded by xanthine dehydrogenase to 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (DHA). 2,8-Dihydroxyadenine is a derivative of adenine which accumulates in 2,8 dihydroxyadenine urolithiasis (kidney stones). Kidney and urinary tract stones can obstruct the urinary tract, resulting in pain and difficulty urinating. If left untreated, the condition can eventually produce kidney failure. APRTD was first diagnosed in 1976. There are two categories of APRTD: type I involves a complete loss of the APRT function while type II involves a partial loss and is mostly found in Japan. APRT deficiency is estimated to affect 1 in 27 000 people in Japan. APRTD is rarer in Europe, where it affects 1 in 50 000 to 100 000 people. A diagnosis of APRTD can be made by analyzing kidney stones or measuring DHA concentrations in urine. APRTD is treatable with regular doses of allopurinol, which inhibits xanthine dehydrogenase activity. APRTD can also be treated with a low-purine diet and a high fluid intake.

SMP0000144

Pw000075 View Pathway
Disease

Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency

Adenosine deaminiase deficiency (immunodeficiency) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by a muation in the ADA gene which codes for adenosine deaminase. A deficiency in this enzyme results in immunodeficiency and a decreased concentration of lymphocytes in blood. Symptoms include diarrhea, severe or recurrent infections, vomiting and early onset in children, infants and newborns. Treatment includes bone-marrow transplants and enzyme replacement therapy.

SMP0000167

Pw000076 View Pathway
Disease

Adenylosuccinate Lyase Deficiency

Adenylosuccinate Lyase Deficiency. (Adenylosuccinase Deficiency ; Adenylosuccinate monophosphate lyase deficiency) is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by a mutation in the ADSL gene which codes for adenylosuccinate lyase. A deficiency in this enzyme results in accumulation of succinyladenosine in plasma, spinal fluid, and urine. Symptoms, which present at birth, include hyptonia, seizures, mental retardation, and encephalopathy. Treatment includes allopurinol.

SMP0000373

Pw000177 View Pathway
Disease

Adrenal Hyperplasia Type 3 or Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

Adrenal hyperplasia type 3, also called Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, is caused by a defect in the CYP21A2 gene which codes for Steroid 21-hydroxylase (21-hydroxylase). Steroid 21-hydroxylase catalyzes hydroxylation of 17-hydroxyprogesterone to 11-deoxycortisol in the glucocorticoid pathway from pregnenolone to cortisol. It also catalyzes hydroxylation of progesterone to 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) in the mineralocorticoid pathway on its way from pregnenolone to aldosterone. A defect in this enzyme results in accumulation of 17-Hydroxyprogesterone, progesterone and 17a-Hydroxypregnenolone, androstenedione, and testosterone; decreased levels of cortexolone, deoxycorticosterone, aldosterone and cortisol. Symptoms include salt-wasting crises in infancy due to the lack of aldosterone, like spitting, poor weight gain, vomiting, severe dehydration, and circulatory collapse. The high level of testosterone results in virilization and genital ambiguity of female infants.
Showing 31 - 40 of 48701 pathways