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Showing 31 - 40 of 48701 pathways
SMPDB ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins

SMP0000063

Pw000163 View Pathway
Metabolic

Tryptophan Metabolism

This pathway depicts the metabolic reactions and pathways associated with tryptophan metabolism in animals. Tryptophan is an essential amino acid. This means that it cannot be synthesized by humans and other mammals and therefore must be part of the diet. Unlike animals, plants and microbes can synthesize tryptophan from shikimic acid or anthranilate. As one of the 20 proteogenic amino acids, tryptophan plays an important role in protein biosynthesis through the action of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase. As shown in this pathway, tryptophan can be linked to the tryptophanyl-tRNA via either the mitochondrial or cytoplasmic tryptophan tRNA ligases. Also shown in this pathway map is the conversion of tryptophan to serotonin (a neurotransmitter). In this process, tryptophan is acted upon by the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase, which produces 5-hydroxytryptophan (5HTP). 5HTP is then converted into serotonin (5-HT) via aromatic amino acid decarboxylase. Serotonin, in turn, can be converted into N-acetyl serotonin (via serotonin-N-acetyltransferase) and then melatonin (a neurohormone), via 5-hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase. The melatonin can be converted into 6-hydroxymelatonin via the action of cytochrome P450s in the endoplasmic reticulum. Serotonin has other fates as well. As depicted in this pathway it can be converted into N-methylserotonin via Indolethylamine-N-methyltransferase (INMT) or it can be converted into formyl-5-hydroxykynurenamine via indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Serotonin may also be converted into 5-methoxyindoleacetate via a series of intermediates including 5-hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. Tryptophan can be converted or broken down into many other compounds as well. It can be converted into tryptamine via the action of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase. The resulting tryptamine can then be converted into indoleacetaldehyde via kynurenine 3-monooxygenase and then into indoleacetic acid via the action of aldehyde dehydrogenase. Tryptophan also leads to the production of a very important compound known as kynurenine. Kynurenine is synthesized via the action of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygnase, which produces N-formylkynurenine. This compound is converted into kynurenine via the enzyme known as kynurenine formamidase (AFMID). Kynurenine has at least 3 fates. First, kynurenine can undergo deamination in a standard transamination reaction yielding kynurenic acid. Secondly, kynurenine can undergo a series of catabolic reactions (involving kynureninase and kynurenine 3-monooxygenase) producing 3-hydroxyanthranilate plus alanine. In this reaction, kynureninase catabolizes the conversion of kynurenine into anthranilic acid while kynurenine—oxoglutarate transaminase (also known as kynurenine aminotransferase or glutamine transaminase K, GTK) catabolizes its conversion into kynurenic acid. The action of kynurenine 3-hydroxylase on kynurenic acid leads to 3-hydroxykynurenine. The oxidation of 3-hydroxyanthranilate converts it into 2-amino-3-carboxymuconic 6-semialdehyde, which has two fates. It can either degrade to form acetoacetate or it can cyclize to form quinolate. Most of the body’s 3-hydroxyanthranilate leads to the production of acetoacetate (a ketone body), which is why tryptophan is also known as a ketogenic amino acid. An important side reaction in the liver involves a non-enzymatic cyclization into quinolate followed by transamination and several rearrangements to yield limited amounts of nicotinic acid, which leads to the production of a small amount of NAD+ and NADP+.

SMP0000048

Pw000151 View Pathway
Metabolic

Nicotinate and Nicotinamide Metabolism

Nicotinate (niacin) and nicotinamide - more commonly known as vitamin B3 - are precursors of the coenzymes nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+). NAD+ synthesis occurs either de novo from amino acids, or a salvage pathway from nicotinamide. Most organisms use the de novo pathway whereas the savage pathway is only typically found in mammals. The specifics of the de novo pathway varies between organisms, but most begin by forming quinolinic acid (QA) from tryptophan (Trp) in animals, or aspartic acid in some bacteria (intestinal microflora) and plants. Nicotinate-nucleotide pyrophosphorylase converts QA into nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN) by transfering a phosphoribose group. Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase then transfers an adenylate group to form nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide (NaAD). Lastly, the nicotinic acid group is amidated to form a nicotinamide group, resulting in a molecule of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). Additionally, NAD can be phosphorylated to form NADP. The salvage pathway involves recycling nicotinamide and nicotinamide-containing molecules such as nicotinamide riboside. The precursors are fed into the NAD+ biosynthetic pathwaythrough adenylation and phosphoribosylation reactions. These compounds can be found in the diet, where the mixture of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are called vitamin B3 or niacin. These compounds are also produced within the body when the nicotinamide group is released from NAD+ in ADP-ribose transfer reactions.

SMP0000016

Pw000149 View Pathway
Metabolic

Propanoate Metabolism

This pathway depicts the metabolism of propionic acid. Propionic acid in mammals typically arises from the production of the acid by gut or skin microflora. Propionic acid producing bacteria (Propionibacterium sp.) are particularly common in sweat glands of mammals. After entering a cell, the propionic acid (propanoate) then enters the mitochondria where it is converted into propanol adenylate (or propionyl adenylate or propionyl-AMP) via propionyl-CoA synthetase and acetyl-CoA synthetase. The propionyl adenylate then is converted into propionyl coenzyme A (propionyl-CoA) via the same pair of enzymes. Propionyl-CoA is a relatively common compound that can also arise from the metabolic breakdown of fatty acids containing odd numbers of carbon atoms. Propionyl-CoA is also known to arise from the breakdown of some amino acids. Since propanoate has three carbons, propionyl-CoA cannot directly enter the beta-oxidation cycle (which requires two carbons from acetyl-CoA). Therefore, in most vertebrates, propionyl-CoA is carboxylated into D-methylmalonyl-CoA via propionyl-CoA carboxylase. The resulting compound is isomerized into L-methylmalonyl-CoA via methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase. A vitamin B12-dependent enzyme, called methylmalonyl CoA mutase catalyzes the rearrangement of L-methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA, which is an intermediate of the citric acid cycle. Also depicted in this pathway is another propionic acid homolog called hydroxypropanoic acid (hydroxypropionate). This compound is also produced by bacteria and imported into cells. Hydroxypropionate can be converted into 3-hydroxypropionyl-CoA. This compound can be either enzymatically converted to acryloyl-CoA and then to propionyl-CoA or it can spontaneously convert to malonyl-CoA. Malonyl-CoA can convert into acetyl-CoA (via acetyl-CoA carboxylase in the cytoplasm or malonyl carboxylase in the mitochondria) whereupon it may enter a variety of pathways. In a rare genetic metabolic disorder called propionic acidemia, propionate acts as a metabolic toxin in liver cells by accumulating in the liver mitochondria as propionyl-CoA and its derivative methylcitrate. Both propionyl-CoA and methylcitrate are known TCA inhibitors. Glial cells are particularly susceptible to propionyl-CoA accumulation. In fact, when propionate is infused into rat brains and take up by the glial cells, it leads to behavioural changes that resemble autism (PMID: 16950524).

SMP0000012

Pw000017 View Pathway
Metabolic

Catecholamine Biosynthesis

The Catecholamine Biosynthesis pathway depicts the synthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters. Catecholamines are chemical hormones released from the adrenal glands as a response to stress that activate the sympathetic nervous system. They are composed of a catechol group and are derived from amino acids. The commonly found catecholamines are epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and dopamine. They are synthesized in catecholaminergic neurons by four enzymes, beginning with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), which generates L-DOPA from tyrosine. The L-DOPA is then converted to dopamine via aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), which becomes norepinephrine via dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH); and finally is converted to epinephrine via phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT).

SMP0000123

Pw000012 View Pathway
Metabolic

Betaine Metabolism

Betaine (or trimethylglycine) is similar to choline (trimethylaminoethanol) but differs in choline's terminal carboxylic acid group trimethylglycine is reduced to a hydroxyl group. Betaine is obtained from diet as betaine or compounds containing choline in foods such as whole grains, beets and spinach. Betaine can also be synthesized from choline in the liver and kidney. First, choline is oxidized to betaine aldehyde by mitochondrial choline oxidase (choline dehydrogenase). Then, betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase oxidizes betaine aldehyde to betaine in the mitochondria or cytoplasm. In the liver, betaine functions as a methyl donor similar to choline, folic acid, S-adenosyl methionine and vitamin B12. Methyl donors are important for liver function, cellular replication and detoxification reactions. Betaine is also involved in the production of carnitine to protect from kidney damage and functions as an osmoprotectant in the inner medulla.

SMP0000057

Pw000005 View Pathway
Metabolic

Citric Acid Cycle

The citric acid cycle, which is also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) or the Krebs cycle, is a connected series of enzyme-catalyzed chemical reactions of central importance to all aerobic organisms (i.e. organisms that use oxygen for cellular respiration). The citric acid cycle is named after citrate or citric acid, a tricarboxylic acid that is both consumed and regenerated through this pathway. The citric acid cycle was discovered in 1937 by Hans Adolf Krebs while he worked at the University of Sheffield in England (PMID: 16746382). Krebs received the Nobel Prize for his discovery in 1953. Krebs’ extensive work on this pathway is also why the citric acid or TCA cycle is often referred to as the Krebs cycle. Metabolically, the citric acid cycle allows the release of energy (ultimately in the form of ATP) from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA. The citric acid cycle also produces CO2, the precursors for several amino acids (aspartate, asparagine, glutamine, proline) and NADH – all of which are used in other important metabolic pathways, such as amino acid synthesis and oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos). The net yield of one “turn” of the TCA cycle in terms of energy-containing compounds is one GTP, one FADH2, and three NADH molecules. The NADH molecules are used in oxidative phosphorylation to generate ATP. In eukaryotes, the citric acid cycle occurs in the mitochondrial matrix. In prokaryotes, the citric acid cycle occurs in the cytoplasm. In eukaryotes, the citric acid or TCA cycle has a total of 10 steps that are mediated by 8 different enzymes. Key to the whole cycle is the availability of acetyl-CoA. One of the primary sources of acetyl-CoA is from the breakdown of glucose (and other sugars) by glycolysis. This process generates pyruvate. Pyruvate is decarboxylated by pyruvate dehydrogenase to generate acetyl-CoA. The citric acid cycle begins with acetyl-CoA transferring its two-carbon acetyl group to the four-carbon acceptor compound (oxaloacetate) to form a six-carbon compound (citrate) through the enzyme citrate synthase. The resulting citrate is then converted to cis-aconitate and then isocitrate via the enzyme aconitase. The resulting isocitrate then combines with NAD+ to form oxalosuccinate and NADH, which is then converted into alpha-ketoglutarate (and CO2) through the action of the enzyme known as isocitrate dehydrogenase. The resulting alpha-ketoglutarate combines with NAD+ and CoA-SH to produce succinyl-CoA, NADH, and CO2. This step is mediated by the enzyme alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase. The resulting succinyl-CoA combines with GDP and organic phosphate to produce succinate, CoA-SH, and GTP. This phosphorylation reaction is performed by succinyl-CoA synthase. The resulting succinate then combines with ubiquinone to produce two compounds, fumarate and ubiquinol through the action of the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase. The resulting fumarate is then hydrated by the enzyme known as fumarase to produce malate. The resulting malate is oxidized via NAD+ to produce oxaloacetate and NADH. This oxidation reaction is performed by malate dehydrogenase. The resulting oxaloacetate can then combine with acetyl-CoA and the TCA reaction cycle begins again. Overall, in the citric acid cycle, the starting six-carbon citrate molecule loses two carboxyl groups as CO2, leading to the production of a four-carbon oxaloacetate. The two-carbon acetyl-CoA that is the “fuel” for the TCA cycle can be generated by several metabolic pathways including glucose metabolism, fatty acid oxidation, and the metabolism of amino acids. The overall reaction for the citric acid cycle is as follows: acetyl-CoA + 3 NAD+ + FAD + GDP + P + 2H2O = CoA-SH + 3NADH + FADH2 + 3H+ + GTP + 2CO2. Many molecules in the citric acid cycle serve as key precursors for other molecules needed by cells. The citrate generated via the citric acid cycle can serve as an intermediate for fatty acid synthesis; alpha-ketoglutarate can serve as a precursor for glutamate, proline, and arginine; oxaloacetate can serve as a precursor for aspartate and asparagine; succinyl-CoA can serve as a precursor for porphyrins; and acetyl-CoA can serve as a precursor fatty acids, cholesterol, vitamin D, and various steroid hormones. There are several variations to the citric acid cycle that are known. Interestingly, most of the variation lies with the step involving succinyl-CoA production or conversion. Humans and other animals have two different types of succinyl-CoA synthetases. One produces GTP from GDP, while the other produces ATP from ADP (PMID: 9765291). On the other hand, plants have a succinyl-CoA synthetase that produces ATP (ADP-forming succinyl-CoA synthetase) (Jones RC, Buchanan BB, Gruissem W. (2000). Biochemistry & molecular biology of plants (1st ed.). Rockville, Md: American Society of Plant Physiologists. ISBN 0-943088-39-9.). In certain acetate-producing bacteria, such as Acetobacter aceti, an enzyme known as succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase performs this conversion (PMID: 18502856) while in Helicobacter pylori succinyl-CoA:acetoacetate CoA-transferase is responsible for this reaction (PMID: 9325289). The citric acid cycle is regulated in a number of ways but the primary mechanism is by product inhibition. For instance, NADH inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and citrate synthase. Acetyl-CoA inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase, while succinyl-CoA inhibits alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase. Additionally, ATP inhibits citrate synthase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase. Calcium is another important regulator of the citric acid cycle. In particular, it activates pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase, which then activates pyruvate dehydrogenase. Calcium also activates isocitrate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (PMID: 171557).

SMP0000023

Pw000050 View Pathway
Metabolic

Steroid Biosynthesis

The steroid biosynthesis (or cholesterol biosynthesis) pathway is an anabolic metabolic pathway that produces steroids from simple precursors. It starts with the mevalonate pathway, where acetyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA are the first two building blocks. These compounds are joined together via the enzyme hydroxy-3-methylgutaryl (HMG)-CoA synthase to produce the compound known as hydroxy-3-methylgutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA). This compound is then reduced to mevalonic acid via the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase. It is important to note that HMG-CoA reductase is the protein target of many cholesterol-lowering drugs called statins (PMID: 12602122). The resulting mevalonic acid (or mevalonate) is then phosphorylated by the enzyme known as mevalonate kinase to form mevalonate-5-phosphate, which is then phosphorylated again by phosphomevalonate kinase to form mevolonate-5-pyrophsophate. This pyrophosphorylated compound is subsequently decarboxylated via the enzyme mevolonate-5-pyrophsophate decarboxylase to form isopentylpyrophosphate (IPP). IPP can also be isomerized (via isopentenyl-PP-isomerase) to form dimethylallylpyrophosphate (DMAPP). IPP and DMAPP can both donate isoprene units, which can then be joined together to make farnesyl and geranylgeranyl intermediates. Specifically, three molecules of IPP condense to form farnesyl pyrophosphate through the action of the enzyme known as geranyl transferase. Two molecules of farnesyl pyrophosphate then condense to form a molecule known as squalene by the action of the enzyme known as squalene synthase in the cell’s endoplasmic reticulum. The enzyme oxidosqualene cyclase then cyclizes squalene to form lanosterol. Lanosterol is a tetracyclic triterpenoid, and serves as the framework from which all steroids are derived. 14-Demethylation of lanosterol by a cytochrome P450 enzyme known as CYP51 eventually yields cholesterol. Cholesterol is the central steroid in human biology. It can be obtained from animal fats consumed in the diet or synthesized de novo (as described above). Cholesterol is an essential constituent of lipid bilayer membranes (where it forms cholesterol esters) and is the starting point for the biosynthesis of steroid hormones, bile acids and bile salts, and vitamin D. Steroid hormones are mostly synthesized in the adrenal gland and gonads. They regulate energy metabolism and stress responses (via glucocorticoids such as cortisol), salt balance (mineralocorticoids such as aldosterone), and sexual development and function (via androgens such as testosterone and estrogens such as estradiol). Bile acids and bile salts (such as taurocholate) are mostly synthesized in the liver. They are released into the intestine and function as detergents to solubilize dietary fats. Cholesterol is the main constituent of atheromas. These are the fatty lumps found in the walls of arteries that occur in atherosclerosis and, when ruptured, can cause heart attacks.

SMP0000010

Pw000031 View Pathway
Metabolic

Nucleotide Sugars Metabolism

Nucleotide sugars are defined as any nucleotide in which the distal phosphoric residue of a nucleoside 5'-diphosphate is in glycosidic linkage with a monosaccharide or monosaccharide derivative. There are nine sugar nucleotides and they can be classified depending on the type of the nucleoside forming them: UDP-Glc, UDP-Gal, UDP-GlcNAc, UDP-GlcUA, UDP- Xyl, GDP-Man, GDP-Fuc and CMP-NeuNAc. Turning back now to the pathway in question, namely the nucleotide sugar metabolism pathway, it should be noted that the nucleotide sugars play an important role. Indeed, they are donors of certain important residues of sugar which are vital to glycosylation and by extension tot the production of polysaccharides. This process produces the substrates for glycosyltransferases. These sugars have several additional roles. For example, nucleotide sugars serve a vital purpose as the intermediates in interconversions of nucleotide sugars that result in the creation and activation of certain sugars necessary in the glycosylation reaction in certain organisms. Moreover, the process of glycosylation is attributed mostly (though not entirely) to the endoplasmic reticulum/golgi apparatus. Logically then, due to the important role of nucleotide sugars in glycosylation, a plethora of transporters exist which displace the sugars from their point of production, the cytoplasm, to where they are needed. In the case, the endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus.

SMP0000039

Pw000144 View Pathway
Metabolic

Glycerolipid Metabolism

The glycerolipid metabolism pathway describes the synthesis of glycerolipids such as monoacylglycerols (MAGs), diacylglycerols (DAGs), triacylglycerols (TAGs), phosphatidic acids (PAs), and lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs). The process begins with cytoplasmic 3-phosphoglyceric acid (a product of glycolysis). This molecule is dephosphorylated via the enzyme glycerate kinase to produce glyceric acid. Glyceric acid is then transformed to glycerol (via the action of aldehyde dehydrogenase and aldose reductase). The free, cytoplasmic glycerol can then be phosphorylated to glycerol-3-phosphate through the action of glycerol kinase. Glycerol-3-phosphate can then enter the endoplasmic reticulum where glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) may combine various acyl-CoA moieties (which donate acyl groups) to form lysophosphatidic (LPA) or phosphatidic acid (PA). The resulting phosphatidic acids can be dephosphorylated via lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase (also known as phosphatidate phosphatase) to produce diacylglycerols (DAGs). The resulting DAGs can be converted into triacylglycerols (TAGs) via the addition of another acyl group (contributed via acyl-CoA) and the action of 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase. Extracellularly, the triacylglycerols (TAGs) can be converted to monoacylglycerols (MAGs) through the action of hepatic triacylglycerol lipase. In addition to this cytoplasmic route of glycerolipid synthesis, another route via mitochondrial synthesis also exists. This route begins with glycerol-3-phosphate, which can be either derived from dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), a product of glycolysis (usually in the cytoplasm of liver or adipose tissue cells) or from glycerol itself. Glycerol-3-phosphate in the mitochondria is first acylated via acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) through the action of mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase to form lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). Once synthesized, lysophosphatidic acid is then acylated with another molecule of acyl-CoA via the action of 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acetyltransferase to yield phosphatidic acid. Phosphatidic acid is then dephosphorylated to form diacylglycerol. Specifically, diacylglycerol is formed by the action of phosphatidate phosphatase (also known as lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase) on phosphatidic acid coupled with the release of a phosphate. The phosphatase exists as 3 isozymes. Diacylglycerol is a precursor to triacylglycerol (triglyceride), which is formed in the addition of a third fatty acid to the diacylglycerol by the action of diglyceride acyltransferase. Since diacylglycerol is synthesized via phosphatidic acid, it will usually contain a saturated fatty acid at the C-1 position on the glycerol moiety and an unsaturated fatty acid at the C-2 position. When the body uses stored fat as a source of energy, glycerol and fatty acids are released into the bloodstream. Fatty acids, stored as triglycerides in humans, are an important and a particularly rich source of energy. The energy yield from a gram of fatty acids is approximately 9 kcal/g (39 kJ/g), compared to 4 kcal/g (17 kJ/g) for carbohydrates. Since the hydrocarbon portion of fatty acids is hydrophobic, these molecules can be stored in a relatively anhydrous (water-free) environment. Fatty acids can hold more than six times the amount of energy than sugars on a weight basis. In other words, if you relied on sugars or carbohydrates to store energy, then you would need to carry 67.5 lb (31 kg) of glycogen to have the energy equivalent to 10 lb (5 kg) of fat.

SMP0000462

Pw000156 View Pathway
Metabolic

Inositol Phosphate Metabolism

Inositol phosphates are a group of molecules that are important for a number of cellular functions, such as cell growth, apoptosis, cell migration, endocytosis, and cell differentiation. Inositol phsosphates consist of an inositol (a sixfold alcohol of cyclohexane) phosphorylated at one or more positions. There are a number of different inositol phosphates found in mammals, distinguishable by the number and position of the phosphate groups. Inositol phosphate can be formed either as a product of phosphatidylinositol phosphate metabolism or from glucose 6-phosphate via the enzyme inositol-3-phosphate synthase 1. Conversion between the different types of inositol phosphates then occurs via a number of specific inositol phosphate kinases and phosphatases, which add (kinase) or remove (phosphatase) phosphate groups. The differing roles of the numerous inositol phosphates means that their metabolism must be tightly regulated. This is done via the localization and activation/deactivation of the various kinases and phosphatases, which can be found in the cytoplasm, nucleus or endoplasmic reticulum. The unphosphorylated inositol ring can be used to produce phosphoinositides through phosphatidylinositol phosphate metabolism.
Showing 31 - 40 of 48701 pathways