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Pathways

Showing 31 - 40 of 61345 pathways
SMPDB ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins

SMP00721

Pw000698 View Pathway
disease

3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency

Homo sapiens
3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency is a disorder of L-serine biosynthesis that is characterized by congenital microcephaly, psychomotor retardation, and seizures.The disorder is caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous or homozygous mutation in the gene encoding phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase on chromosome 1p12. Defects in the gene lead to a decrease of Glycine and Serine.

SMP02308

Pw002382 View Pathway
metabolic

4-aminobutanoate degradation

Saccharomyces cerevisiae
GABA accumulation occurs either through permease-mediated uptake by Uga4p, Put4p, and Gap1p, or it is produced intracellularly via glutamate degradation by the glutamate decarboxylase, this variant of the pathway includes a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent 4-aminobutyrate transaminase and an NAD+-dependent dehydrogenase. This combination of enzymes has been documented in bacteria and animals and in some plants. Regarding the hydrogenase, NAD-specific variants have been studied from many bacteria, plant and animals.

SMP02080

Pw002068 View Pathway
metabolic

4-aminobutanoate degradation I

Escherichia coli
E. coli can utilize putrescine as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. The enzymes of the putrescine degradation II pathway are inducible by extracellular putrescine, leading to the production of GABA. Both enzymes of this pathway are inducible by putrescine in E. coli. This variant of the pathway includes a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent 4-aminobutyrate transaminase and an NAD+-dependent dehydrogenase. This combination of enzymes has been documented in bacteria and animals and in some plants. Regarding the hydrogenase, NAD-specific variants have been studied from many bacteria, plant and animals.

SMP00243

Pw000070 View Pathway
disease

4-Hydroxybutyric Aciduria/Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase Deficiency

Homo sapiens
4-Hydroxybutyric Aciduria/Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase Deficiency (SSADH; Gamma-hydroxybutyric acidemia) inhibits the formation of succinate from GABA. This deficiency results in urinary excretion of 4-hydroxybutyric acid. In vivo proton MR also indicates elevated GABA levels as compared with an age-matched control. Symptoms include ataxia, chorea or athetosis, motor retardation, seizures, macrocephaly and delayed or abnormal speech development.

SMP12018

Pw012878 View Pathway
metabolic

5-Deoxystrigol Biosynthesis

Arabidopsis thaliana
5-deoxystrigol biosynthesis biosynthesis is a pathway that has not yet become fully elucidated. Beginning in the chloroplast and potentially finishing in the cytosol, the pathway follows the synthesis of 5-deoxystrigol from beta-carotene. 5-deoxystrigol is a strigolactone, a plant hormone that stimulates the branching and growth of symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and inhibits plant shoot branching (Wikipedia). Strigolactones share a common C19 structure composed of a tricyclic lactone (A, B, and C rings) connected to a second lactone (D ring) by an enol ether bridge. 5-deoxystrigol is the precursor of other beta-oriented C-ring strigolactones (strigol-configured strigolactones) (PMID: 25425668). First, beta-carotene isomerase catalyzes the conversion of beta-carotene into 9-cis-beta-carotene with the help of an iron cofactor. Second, 9-cis-beta-carotene 9',10'-cleavage dioxygenase converts 9-cis-beta-carotene and oxygen to 9-cis-10'-apo-beta-carotenal and beta-ionone with the help of an Fe2+ cofactor. Third, carlactone synthase converts 9-cis-10'-apo-beta-carotenal and oxygen to carlactone and (2E,4E,6E)-7-hydroxy-4-methylhepta-2,4,6-trienal with the help of an Fe2+ cofactor. The final two reactions are not completely understood and may occur in the cytosol. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase is theorized to catalyze the fourth reaction whereby carlactone is conveted into carlactone carboxylate. It requires heme as a cofactor. This same enzyme could possibly also catalyze the fifth reaction in which 5-deoxystrigol is made.

SMP00500

Pw000476 View Pathway
disease

5-oxoprolinase deficiency

Homo sapiens
5-oxoprolinase deficiency can be caused by heterozygous or homozygous mutation in the OPLAH gene (5-Oxoprolinase). Patients are relatively asymptomatic but they do exhibit high levels of urinary excretion of 5-oxoproline. Patients also exhibit plasma 5-oxoproline levels of about 0.18 mM or higher. Patients tend to exhibit transient hypoglycemia.

SMP00143

Pw000074 View Pathway
disease

5-Oxoprolinuria

Homo sapiens
5-Oxoprolinuria (5-Oxoprolinase deficiency) is a result of a defect in the gamma-glutamyl cycle due to either 5-oxoprolinase or glutathione synthetase deficiency. In the case of glutathione synthetase deficiency, the glycine is not incorporated into gamma-glutamylcysteine. In the case of 5-oxoprolinase, however, pyroglutamic acid accumulates. Symptoms include anemia, mental retardation, metabolic acidosis, respiratory distress and urolithiasis.

SMP00737

Pw000714 View Pathway
drug action

Abacavir Action Pathway

Homo sapiens
Abacavir is a carbocyclic synthetic nucleoside analogue and an antiviral agent. Intracellularly, abacavir is converted by cellular enzymes to the active metabolite carbovir triphosphate, an analogue of deoxyguanosine-5'-triphosphate (dGTP). Carbovir triphosphate inhibits the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) both by competing with the natural substrate dGTP and by its incorporation into viral DNA. Viral DNA growth is then terminated.

SMP00265

Pw000291 View Pathway
drug action

Abciximab Action Pathway

Homo sapiens
Abciximab binds to the intact platelet GPIIb/IIIa receptor, which is a member of the integrin family of adhesion receptors and the major platelet surface receptor involved in platelet aggregation. This binding is thought to involve steric hindrance and/or conformational alterations which block access of large molecules to the receptor rather than direct interaction with the RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) binding site of GPlIb/IIIa.

SMP12019

Pw012879 View Pathway
metabolic

Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis

Arabidopsis thaliana
Abscisic acid biosynthesis is a pathway that begins in the chloroplast and ends in the cytosol by which violaxanthin becomes abscisic acid, a plant hormone that plays a role in many plant developmental processes, including bud dormancy (Wikipedia). First, neoxanthin synthase catalyzes the opening of the violaxanthin epoxide ring to form neoxanthin. Second, a yet unidentified neoxanthin isomerase is theorized to isomerize neoxanthin to 9'-cis-neoxanthin. Third, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) uses oxygen to cleave 9'-cis-neoxanthin to form xanthoxin and C25-allenic-apo-aldehyde. This enzyme requires Fe2+ as a cofactor. Next, a xanthoxin transporter is theorized to export xanthoxin from the chloroplast into the cytosol to continue abscisic acid biosynthesis, but it has yet to be discovered. Fourth, xanthoxin dehydrogenase, located in the cytosol, catalyzes the conversion of xanthoxin and NAD to abscisic aldehyde, NADH, and a proton with the help of a molybdenum cofactor (MoCo). Fifth, abscisic-aldehyde oxidase converts abscisic aldehyde, water, and oxygen into hydrogen peroxide, hydrogen ion, and abscisic acid.
Showing 31 - 40 of 61345 pathways