Quantitative metabolomics services for biomarker discovery and validation.
Specializing in ready to use metabolomics kits.
Your source for quantitative metabolomics technologies and bioinformatics.

Filter by Pathway Type:



Showing 41 - 50 of 48701 pathways
SMPDB ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins

SMP0000372

Pw000179 View Pathway
Disease

Adrenal Hyperplasia Type 5 or Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Due to 17 alpha-Hydroxylase Deficiency

Adrenal hyperplasia type 5 (AH5) also known as Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Due to 17 alpha-Hydroxylase Deficiency is a rare inborn error of metabolism (IEM) and autosomal recessive disorder of cortisol and sex steroids synthesis caused by a defect in the CYP17A1 gene which codes for Steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase. These 2 enzymes catalyze pregnenolone and progesterone to their 17-hydroxy forms in steroidogenesis and mediate three key transformations in cortisol and sex steroid synthesis. This disorder is characterized by a decrease in both cortisol and sex steroids and increase in mineralocorticoids. Symptoms of the disorder include mild hypocortisolism, ambiguous genitalia in genetic males or failure of the ovaries to function at puberty in genetic females, and hypertension. Treatments for Hypertension and mineralocorticoid excess is done with glucocorticoid replacement. Genetically female patients need female hormone replacement to induce puberty and regulate menses. Surgery may be needed for males with ambiguous genitalia. Testosterone must be replaced for genetically males (XY) to induce puberty and continued throughout adult life. It is estimated that Adrenal hyperplasia type 5 affects 1 in 1 million individuals worldwide.

SMP0000516

Pw000492 View Pathway
Disease

Adrenoleukodystrophy, X-Linked

Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is an X-linked recessive transmission disease. Central nervous system signs and symptoms have been consistently more prominent than signs of adrenal involvement. Behavioral changes are the most common initial finding and range from aggressive outbursts to withdrawal. Such behavior is generally accompanied by a gradually failing memory and poor school performance. Loss of vision is an early finding in some patients and is a prominent feature at some stage in most affected individuals. The initial visual loss appears as homonomous hemianopsia in some individuals and is usually associated with intact pupillary reflexes. Optic atrophy is less common as an initial finding but eventually develops in almost all cases. Gait disturbance is also an early finding and as is stiff-legged, unsteady and accompanied by hyperreflexia. In almost all cases there is spastic quadraplegia and a variable degree of decorticate posturing. Hearing loss, dysarthria and dysphagia develop at about the same time as gait disturbance. Seizures are a typical symptom in many affected individuals in the the end stages of the disease progression.

SMP0063771

Pw064763 View Pathway
Protein

Ahr Signal Transduction Pathway

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor, known as AHR, is a normally cytosolic transcription factor that can bind to foreign compounds such as flavonoids and indoles from foods, as well as synthetic ligands including polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD). This includes 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD), which is the ligand shown in this pathway. AHR interacts with heat shock protein 90 (HSP90AA1), which acts as a chaperone for it. After this association, the ligand, in this case TCDD, can form a covalent bond with the complex in the cell's cytoplasm. This binding causes AHR and the rest of the complex to translocate into the nucleus of the cell. Once in the nucleus, the heat shock protein dissociates, leaving binding sites which the AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT) then binds to. Finally, the AHR/ARNT complex can interact, either directly or indirectly, with the DNA, in this case specifically a dioxin response element. With other ligands, the complex will bind to the equivalent DNA that corresponds to the genes that allow metabolism of the ligand.
  • 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

SMP0000168

Pw000082 View Pathway
Disease

AICA-Ribosiduria

AICA-ribosiduria is a metabolic disease caused by a defect in final steps of purine de novo biosynthesis. This defect is caused by a mutation in the ATIC which codes for bifunctional purine biosynthesis protein PURH. A deficiency in this enzyme results in accumulation of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide in urine. Symptoms include mental retardation, epilepsy, dysmorphic features, and congenital blindness.

SMP0000055

Pw000001 View Pathway
Metabolic

Alanine Metabolism

Alanine (L-Alanine) is an α-amino acid that is used for protein biosynthesis. Approximately 8% of human proteins have alanine in their structures. The reductive lamination of pyruvate is effected by alanine transaminase. L-Alanine can be converted to pyruvic acid by alanine aminotransferase 1 reversibly coupled with interconversion of oxoglutaric acid and L-glutamic acid. L-Alanine can also be produced by alanine-glyoxylate transaminase with coupled interconversion of glyoxylate and glycine. L-Alanine will be coupled with alanyl tRNA by alanyl-tRNA synthetase to perform protein biosynthesis. Alanine can also be used to provide energy under fasting conditions. There are two pathways that can facilitate this: (1) alanine is converted to pyruvate to synthesize glucose via the gluconeogenesis pathway in liver tissue or (2) alanine converted into pyruvate moves into the TCA cycle to be oxidized in other tissues.

SMP0062881

Pw063838 View Pathway
Drug Action

Alcaftadine H1-Antihistamine Action

Alcaftadine is a second-generation piperidine H1-antihistamine. H1-antihistamines interfere with the agonist action of histamine at the H1 receptor and are administered to attenuate inflammatory process in order to treat conditions such as allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and urticaria. Reducing the activity of the NF-κB immune response transcription factor through the phospholipase C and the phosphatidylinositol (PIP2) signalling pathways also decreases antigen presentation and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, cell adhesion molecules, and chemotactic factors. Furthermore, lowering calcium ion concentration leads to increased mast cell stability which reduces further histamine release. First-generation antihistamines readily cross the blood-brain barrier and cause sedation and other adverse central nervous system (CNS) effects (e.g. nervousness and insomnia). Second-generation antihistamines are more selective for H1-receptors of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and do not cross the blood-brain barrier. Consequently, these newer drugs elicit fewer adverse drug reactions.

SMP0121126

Pw122401 View Pathway
Physiological

Aldosterone from Steroidogenesis

Aldosterone is a hormone produced in the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex. It's function is to act on the distal convoluted tubule and the collecting duct of the nephron to make them more permeable to sodium to allow for its reuptake (in addition to allowing potassium wasting). As a result, water follows the sodium back into the body. The water retention contributes to an increased blood volume. Angiotensin II from the circulation binds to receptors on the zona glomerulosa cell membrane, activating the G protein and triggering a signaling cascade. The end result is the activation of the steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein that permits cholesterol uptake into the mitochondria. From there, cholesterol undergoes a series of reactions in both the mitochondrion and the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (steroidogenesis) where it finally becomes aldosterone.

SMP0000095

Pw000137 View Pathway
Drug Action

Alendronate Action Pathway

Alendronate (also known as alendronic acid) is a type of bisphosphonate medication with nitrogen that can inhibit FPP synthase, which can block the pathway that produce geranyl-PP and farnesyl pyrophosphate. Geranyl-PP and farnesyl pyrophosphate are the compounds that are required for small GTPase signalling proteins undergo post-translational farnesylation and geranylgeranylation. Therefore, lack the formation of geranyl-PP and farnesyl pyrophosphate can prevent osteoclast activity, which lead to prevention of reduced bone resorption and turnover.

SMP0000413

Pw000419 View Pathway
Drug Action

Alfentanil Action Pathway

Alfentanil (also known as Alfenta or Rapifen) is analgesic that can bind to mu-type opioid receptor to activate associated G-protein in the sensory neurons of central nervous system (CNS), which will reduce the level of intracellular cAMP by inhibiting adenylate cyclase. The binding of alfentanil will eventually lead to reduced pain because of decreased nerve conduction and release of neurotransmitter. Hyperpolarization of neuron is caused by inactivation of calcium channels and activation of potassium channels via facilitated by G-protein.

SMP0059689

Pw060631 View Pathway
Drug Action

Alimemazine H1-Antihistamine Action

Alimemazine (trimeprazine) is a first-generation phenothiazine H1-antihistamine. H1-antihistamines interfere with the agonist action of histamine at the H1 receptor and are administered to attenuate inflammatory process in order to treat conditions such as allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and urticaria. Reducing the activity of the NF-κB immune response transcription factor through the phospholipase C and the phosphatidylinositol (PIP2) signalling pathways also decreases antigen presentation and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, cell adhesion molecules, and chemotactic factors. Furthermore, lowering calcium ion concentration leads to increased mast cell stability which reduces further histamine release. First-generation antihistamines readily cross the blood-brain barrier and cause sedation and other adverse central nervous system (CNS) effects (e.g. nervousness and insomnia). Second-generation antihistamines are more selective for H1-receptors of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and do not cross the blood-brain barrier. Consequently, these newer drugs elicit fewer adverse drug reactions.
Showing 41 - 50 of 48701 pathways