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Pathways

Showing 41 - 50 of 724 pathways
SMPDB ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins

SMP00095

Pw000137 View Pathway
drug action

Alendronate Action Pathway

Homo sapiens
Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (such as pamidronate, alendronate, risedronate, ibandronate and zoledronate) appear to act as analogues of isoprenoid diphosphate lipids, thereby inhibiting FPP synthase, an enzyme in the mevalonate pathway. Inhibition of this enzyme in osteoclasts prevents the biosynthesis of isoprenoid lipids (FPP and GGPP) that are essential for the post-translational farnesylation and geranylgeranylation of small GTPase signalling proteins. This activity inhibits osteoclast activity and reduces bone resorption and turnover. In postmenopausal women, it reduces the elevated rate of bone turnover, leading to, on average, a net gain in bone mass.

SMP00413

Pw000419 View Pathway
drug action

Alfentanil Action Pathway

Homo sapiens
Alfentanil exerts its analgesic by acting on the mu-opioid receptor of sensory neurons. Binding to the mu-opioid receptor activates associated G(i) proteins. These subsequently act to inhibit adenylate cyclase, reducing the level of intracellular cAMP. G(i) also activates potassium channels and inactivates calcium channels causing the neuron to hyperpolarize. The end result is decreased nerve conduction and reduced neurotransmitter release, which blocks the perception of pain signals.

SMP00169

Pw000180 View Pathway
disease

Alkaptonuria

Homo sapiens
Alkaptonuria (Homogentisic acid oxidase deficiency) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by a mutation in the HGD gene which codes for homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase. A mutation in this enzyme results in accumulation of homogentisic acid in urine. Symptoms, which present in adulthood, include arthritis, black or brown urine, and urolithiasis. Treatment includes a low-protein diet with vitamin C.

SMP00018

Pw000006 View Pathway
metabolic

Alpha Linolenic Acid and Linoleic Acid Metabolism

Homo sapiens
Linoleic acid is a member of essential fatty acids called omega-6 fatty acids. It is an essential dietary requirement for all mammals. The other group of essential fatty acids is the omega-3 fatty acids (i.e. alpha-linolenic acid). The first step in the metabolism of linoleic acid (LA) is performed by Δ-6-desaturase, which converts LA into gamma-linolenic acid (GLA). GLA is converted to dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA), which in turn is converted to arachidonic acid (AA). One of the possible fates of AA is to be transformed into a group of metabolites called eicosanoids. There are three types of eicosanoids are prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. α-Linolenic acid (ALA), is an essential 18:3n or omega-3 fatty acid. It is considered essential because it cannot be produced entirely within the body and must be acquired through diet. Once acquired, α-Linolenic acid can be “regenerated” endogenously by the cleavage of phospholipids into their constituent fatty acids by phospholipase A2. The resulting fatty acid can then be converted to stearidonic acid through the action of fatty acid desaturase 2. α-Linolenic acid is primarily used by the body in the synthesis of Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5, n−3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6, n−3), two fatty acids that play a vital role in many metabolic and cell signaling processes. These fatty acids are synthesized via fatty acid desaturase 2, fatty acid desaturase 1 and several elongase enzymes (Q9GZR5) in the liver. α-Linolenic acid is also in the regulation of lipid metabolism by activation of the peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor alpha (PPARa).

SMP00297

Pw000365 View Pathway
drug action

Alprenolol Action Pathway

Homo sapiens
Alprenolol non-selectively blocks beta-1 adrenergic receptors mainly in the heart, inhibiting the effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine resulting in a decrease in heart rate and blood pressure. By binding beta-2 receptors in the juxtaglomerular apparatus, alprenolol inhibits the production of renin, thereby inhibiting angiotensin II and aldosterone production and therefore inhibits the vasoconstriction and water retention due to angiotensin II and aldosterone, respectively.

SMP00280

Pw000302 View Pathway
drug action

Alteplase Action Pathway

Homo sapiens
Alteplase binds to fibrin in a thrombus and converts the entrapped plasminogen to plasmin. It also produces limited conversion of plasminogen in the absence of fibrin.

SMP00685

Pw000662 View Pathway
drug action

Alvimopan Action Pathway

Homo sapiens
Alvimopan is a peripherally acting μ opioid antagonist. It competitively binds to mu-opioid receptor in the gastrointestinal tract. Unlike methylnaltrexone (another peripherally acting mu-receptor antagonist) that bears a quaternary amine, alvimopan owes its selectivity for peripheral receptors to its kinetics. Alvimopan binds to peripheral mu-receptors with a Ki of 0.2 ng/mL and dissociates slower than most other ligands.

SMP00253

Pw000351 View Pathway
drug action

Amikacin Action Pathway

Homo sapiens
Amikacin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that inhibits bacterial protein synthesis. Amikacin binds irreversibly to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit protein and 16S rRNA and prevents the formation of the initiation complex with messenger RNA. More specifically, amikacin binds four nucleotides of the 16S rRNA and a single amino acid of protein S12. This interferes with the decoding site in the vicinity of nucleotide 1400 in 16S rRNA of the 30S subunit. This region interacts with the wobble base of the anticodon of tRNA. This leads to interference with the initiation complex, misreading of mRNA so that incorrect amino acids are inserted into the polypeptide leading to nonfunctional or toxic peptides, and the breakup of polysomes into nonfunctional monosomes. Aminoglycosides are useful primarily in infections involving aerobic, Gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and Enterobacter. In addition, some mycobacteria, including the bacteria that cause tuberculosis, are susceptible to aminoglycosides. Infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria can also be treated with aminoglycosides, but other types of antibiotics are more potent and less damaging to the host. In the past the aminoglycosides have been used in conjunction with penicillin-related antibiotics in streptococcal infections for their synergistic effects, particularly in endocarditis. Aminoglycosides are mostly ineffective against anaerobic bacteria, fungi and viruses.

SMP00133

Pw000342 View Pathway
drug action

Amiloride Action Pathway

Homo sapiens
Amiloride inhibits the epithelial sodium channels on principal cells in the late distal convoluted tubule and collecting tubule, which are responsible for 1-2% of total sodium reabsorption. As sodium reabsorption is inhibited, this increases the osmolarity in the nephron lumen and decreases the osmolarity of the interstitium. Since sodium concentration is the main driving force for water reabsorption, amiloride can achieve a modest amount of diuresis by decreasing the osmotic gradient necessary for water reabsorption from lumen to interstitium. Amiloride also has a potassium-sparing effect. Normally, the process of potassium excretion is driven by the electrochemical gradient produced by sodium reabsorption. As sodium is reabsorbed, it leaves a negative potential in the lumen, while producing a positive potential in the principal cell. This potential promotes potassium excretion through apical potassium channels. By inhibiting sodium reabsorption, amiloride also inhibits potassium excretion.

SMP00045

Pw000008 View Pathway
metabolic

Amino Sugar Metabolism

Homo sapiens
This pathway describes the biosynthesis and degradation of amino sugars, glycosaminoglycans or mucopolysaccharides. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or mucopolysaccharides are long unbranched polysaccharides consisting of a repeating disaccharide unit. Members of the glycosaminoglycan family vary in the type of hexosamine, hexose or hexuronic acid unit they contain (e.g. glucuronic acid, iduronic acid, galactose, galactosamine, glucosamine). In this pathway the fates of three types of amino sugars (neuraminate, mannosamine and glucosamines) are depicted. The central hub metabolite to this pathway is UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. This molecule can either serve as a precursor to polymeric mucopolysaccharides, a precursor to other types of amino sugars, or a precursor to fructose 6-phosphate, which can be used in fructose/mannose metabolism.
Showing 41 - 50 of 724 pathways