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Showing 1 - 10 of 48694 pathways
SMPDB ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins

SMP0121060

Pw122328 View Pathway
Metabolic

Kandutsch-Russell Pathway (Cholesterol Biosynthesis)

The Kandutsch-Russell pathway is the alternative pathway stemming from the mevalonate pathway completing cholesterol biosynthesis. The Bloch pathway and the Kandutsch-Russell pathway are both key to a functioning human body as cholesterol aids in the development of many important nutrients and hormones, such as vitamin D. Starting in the endoplasmic reticulum, lanosterol is the first compound used in this pathway, and when catalyzed by delta(24)-sterol-reductase, becomes 24,25-dihydrolanosterol. 24,25-Dihydrolanosterol is quickly converted to 4,4-dimethyl-14a-hydroxymethyl-5a-cholesta-8-en-3b-ol with the help of the enzyme lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase. This same enzyme, lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase, is also responsible for the conversion of 4,4-dimethyl-14a-hydroxymethyl-5a-cholesta-8-en-3b-ol into 4,4-dimethyl-14a-formyl-5a-cholest-8-en-3b-ol. Lanosterol 14alpha demethylase is used once more here, to push the pathway into the inner nuclear membrane, converting 4,4-dimethyl-14a-formyl-5a-cholest-8-en-3b-ol into 4,4-dimethyl-5a-cholesta-8,14-dien-3b-ol. Now located in the inner nuclear membrane, 4,4-dimethyl-5a-cholesta-8,14-dien-3b-ol is converted into 4,4-dimethyl-5a-cholesta-8-en-3b-ol through the help of a lamin-b receptor. Entering the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, methylsterol monooxygenase 1 is used to convert 4,4-dimethyl-5a-cholesta-8-en-3b-ol into 4a-hydroxymethyl-4b-methyl-5a-cholesta-8-en-3b-ol. 4a-Hydroxymethyl-4b-methyl-5a-cholesta-8-en-3b-ol then uses methylsterol monooxygenase 1 to become 4a-formyl-4b-methyl-5a-cholesta-8-en-3b-ol. Once again, methylsterol monooxygenase 1 is used to convert 4a-formyl-4b-methyl-5a-cholesta-8-en-3b-ol into 4a-carboxy-4b-methyl-5a-cholesta-8-en-3b-ol. Now using sterol-4-alpha-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase, 4a-carboxy-4b-methyl-5a-cholesta-8-en-3b-ol is turned into 4a-methyl-5a-cholesta-8-en-3-one. This puts the pathway in the cell membrane, where a 3-keto-steroid reductase is used to convert 4a-methyl-5a-cholesta-8-en-3b-one into 4a-methyl-5a-cholesta-8-en-3-ol. Moving back into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, methylsterol monooxygenase 1 converts 4a-methyl-5a-cholesta-8-en-3-ol into 4a-hydroxymethyl-5a-cholesta-8-en-3b-ol. Methylsterol monooxygenase is used twice more in this pathway, first converting 4a-hydroxymethyl-5a-cholesta-8-en-3b-ol into 4a-formyl-5a-cholesta-8-en-3b-ol, then converting 4a-formyl-5a-cholesta-8-en-3b-ol into 4a-carboxy-5a-cholesta-8-en-3b-ol. Now using sterol-4-alpha-carboxylate 3 dehydrogenase, 4a-carboxy-5a-cholesta-8-en-3b-ol becomes 5a-cholesta-8-en-3-one and brings the pathway back to the cell membrane. 5a-Cholesta-8-en-3-one teams up with a 3-keto-steroid reductase to create 5a-cholest-8-en-3b-ol. Then, stepping back into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, 5a-cholest-8-en-3b-ol enlists the help of 3-beta-hydroxysteroid-delta(8),delta(7)-isomerase to produce lathosterol. Lathosterol and lathosterol oxidase work together to make 7-dehydrocholesterol . Finally, 7-dehydrocholesterol partners with 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase to create cholesterol, completing the final step in cholesterol biosynthesis.

SMP0121058

Pw122326 View Pathway
Drug Action

Piroxicam Action Action Pathway Xuan (Demo Purpose) 2

SMP0121057

Pw122325 View Pathway
Metabolic

Bloch Pathway (Cholesterol Biosynthesis)

The Bloch pathway, named after Konrad Bloch, is the pathway following the mevalonate pathway occurring within the cell to complete cholesterol biosynthesis. Cholesterol is a necessary metabolite that helps create many essential hormones within the human body. This pathway, combined with the mevalonate pathway is one of two ways to biosynthesize cholesterol; the Kandutsch-Russell pathway is an alternative pathway that uses different compounds than the Bloch Pathway beginning after lanosterol. The first three reactions occur in the endoplasmic reticulum. Lanosterol, a compound created through the mevalonate pathway, binds with the enzyme lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase to become 4,4-dimethyl-14a-hydroxymethyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol. Moving to the next reaction, 4,4-dimethyl-14a-hydroxymethyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol utilizes the enzyme lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase to create 4,4-dimethyl-14α-formyl-5α-cholesta-8,24-dien-3β-ol. Lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase is used one last time in this pathway, converting 4,4-dimethyl-14α-formyl-5α-cholesta-8,24-dien-3β-ol into 4,4-dimethyl-5a-cholesta-8,14,24-trien-3b-ol. Entering the inner nuclear membrane, 4,4-dimethyl-5a-cholesta-8,14,24-trien-3b-ol is catalyzed by a lamin B receptor to create 4,4-dimethyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3-b-ol. Entering the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, 4,4-dimethyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3-b-ol, with the help of methyl monooxygenase 1 is converted to 4a-hydroxymethyl-4b-methyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol. The enzyme methyl monooxygenase 1 uses 4a-hydroxymethyl-4b-methyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol to produce 4a-formyl-4b-methyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol. This reaction is repeated once more, using 4a-formyl-4b-methyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol and methyl monooxygenase 1 to create 4a-carboxy-4b-methyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol. Briefly entering the endoplasmic reticulum, 4a-carboxy-4b-methyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol then uses sterol-4-alpha-carboxylate-3-dehyrogenase to catalyze into 3-keto-4-methylzymosterol. Back in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, where the pathway will continue on for the remaining reactions, 3-keto-4-methylzymosterol combines with 3-keto-steroid reductase to create 4a-methylzymosterol. 4a-Methylzymosterol joins the enzyme methylsterol monooxgenase 1 to result in 4a-hydroxymethyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol. 4a-Hydroxymethyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol uses methylsterol monooxygenase 1 to convert to 4a-formyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol. 4a-Formyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol proceeds to use the same enzyme used in the previous reaction: methylsterol monooxygenase 1, to catalyze into 4a-carboxy-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol. Sterol-4-alpha-carboxylate-3-dehydrogenase is used alongside 4a-carboxy-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol to produce 5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3-one (also known as zymosterone). Zymosterone (5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3-one) teams up with 3-keto-steroid reductase to create zymosterol. Zymosterol proceeds to use the enzyme 3-beta-hydroxysteroid-delta(8),delta(7)-isomerase to catalyze into 5a-cholesta-7,24-dien-3b-ol. The compound 5a-cholesta-7,24-dien-3b-ol then joins lathosterol oxidase to convert to 7-dehydrodesmosterol. 7-Dehydrodesmosterol and the enzyme 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase come together to create desmosterol. This brings the pathway to the final reaction, where desmosterol combines with delta(24)-sterol reductase to finally convert to cholesterol.

SMP0121055

Pw122323 View Pathway
Metabolic

Mevalonate Pathway

The Mevalonate Pathway is a necessary pathway that occurs in archaea, eukaryotes and select bacteria. It has mainly been studied with regard to cholesterol biosynthesis and how it relates to cardiovascular disease in humans, but has recently garnered attention for its many other essential roles within human pathology. The pathway begins in the cytoplasm with acetyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA, which interact with acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, coenzyme A and water to synthesize hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase. In turn, this synthase teams up with coenzyme A and a hydrogen ion in the endoplasmic reticulum to create 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA then pairs with 2NADPH, 2 hydrogen ions and is catalyzed by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase to produce (R)-mevalonate, also producing byproducts CoA and NADP. Exiting the endoplasmic reticulum, and entering the peroxisome, (R)-mevalonate uses the help of ATP and mevalonate kinase to create mevalonic acid (5P). This piece is especially important to the human species as decreased activity of the enzyme mevalonate kinase has been found to be a direct link to two auto-inflammatory disorders: MVA and HIDS. Using phosphomevalonate kinase and ATP, the pathway re-enters the cytoplasm and mevalonic acid (5P) converts to (R)-mevalonic acid-5-pyrophosphate and ADP. (R)-mevalonic acid-5-pyrophosphate, ATP and diphosphomevalonate decarboxylase work together to create phosphate, carbon dioxide, ADP and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. Re-entering the peroxisome, isopentenyl diphosphate delta isomerase 1 is waiting to propel isopentenyl pyrophosphate into dimethylallylpyrophosphate. This pushes the pathway back into the cytoplasm, where another isopentenyl pyrophosphate molecule and the enzyme farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase create pyrophosphate and geranyl-PP. Yet another isopentenyl pyrophosphate molecules works with farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase to produce pyrophosphate and farnesyl pyrophosphate. Now in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, 2 farnesyl pyrophosphate molecules with the help of NADPH and a hydrogen ion catalyze with squalene synthase and create squalene. This is an important first step in the specific hepatic cholesterol pathway. Remaining in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, squalene, FMNH, oxygen and squalene monooxygenase synthesize (S)-2,3-epoxysqualene. This comes along with the byproducts of flavin mononucleotide, a hydrogen ion and water. In the final reaction within this pathway, lanesterol synthase converts (S)-2,3-epoxysqualene to lanosterin. Not pictured in this pathway, lanosterin will eventually be converted to cholesterol, an important part of many functions in the human body.

SMP0119305

Pw120528 View Pathway
Protein

Protein Synthesis: Valine

In protein synthesis, a succession of transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules charged with appropriate amino acids are brought together with a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule and matched up by base-pairing through the anti-codons of the tRNA with successive codons of the mRNA. Charging or loading the appropriate amino acid onto its tRNA is carried out by an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS or ARS), also called tRNA-ligase. This enzyme catalyzes the esterification of a specific cognate amino acid or its precursor to one of all its compatible cognate tRNAs to form an aminoacyl-tRNA. The 20 different types of aa-tRNA are made by the 20 different aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, one for each amino acid of the genetic code. Once the tRNA is charged, a ribosome can transfer the amino acid from the tRNA onto a growing peptide chain via a reaction termed peptide condensation, and the tRNAs, no longer carrying amino acids, are released. Aminoacyl-tRNA, therefore, plays an important role in translation, the expression of genes to create proteins. Translation is carried out by ribosomes in the cytoplasm or endoplasmic reticulum after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus (Wikipedia).

SMP0119304

Pw120527 View Pathway
Protein

Protein Synthesis: Tyrosine

In protein synthesis, a succession of transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules charged with appropriate amino acids are brought together with a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule and matched up by base-pairing through the anti-codons of the tRNA with successive codons of the mRNA. Charging or loading the appropriate amino acid onto its tRNA is carried out by an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS or ARS), also called tRNA-ligase. This enzyme catalyzes the esterification of a specific cognate amino acid or its precursor to one of all its compatible cognate tRNAs to form an aminoacyl-tRNA. The 20 different types of aa-tRNA are made by the 20 different aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, one for each amino acid of the genetic code. Once the tRNA is charged, a ribosome can transfer the amino acid from the tRNA onto a growing peptide chain via a reaction termed peptide condensation, and the tRNAs, no longer carrying amino acids, are released. Aminoacyl-tRNA, therefore, plays an important role in translation, the expression of genes to create proteins. Translation is carried out by ribosomes in the cytoplasm or endoplasmic reticulum after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus (Wikipedia).

SMP0119303

Pw120526 View Pathway
Protein

Protein Synthesis: Tryptophan

In protein synthesis, a succession of transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules charged with appropriate amino acids are brought together with a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule and matched up by base-pairing through the anti-codons of the tRNA with successive codons of the mRNA. Charging or loading the appropriate amino acid onto its tRNA is carried out by an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS or ARS), also called tRNA-ligase. This enzyme catalyzes the esterification of a specific cognate amino acid or its precursor to one of all its compatible cognate tRNAs to form an aminoacyl-tRNA. The 20 different types of aa-tRNA are made by the 20 different aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, one for each amino acid of the genetic code. Once the tRNA is charged, a ribosome can transfer the amino acid from the tRNA onto a growing peptide chain via a reaction termed peptide condensation, and the tRNAs, no longer carrying amino acids, are released. Aminoacyl-tRNA, therefore, plays an important role in translation, the expression of genes to create proteins. Translation is carried out by ribosomes in the cytoplasm or endoplasmic reticulum after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus (Wikipedia).

SMP0119302

Pw120525 View Pathway
Protein

Protein Synthesis: Threonine

In protein synthesis, a succession of transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules charged with appropriate amino acids are brought together with a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule and matched up by base-pairing through the anti-codons of the tRNA with successive codons of the mRNA. Charging or loading the appropriate amino acid onto its tRNA is carried out by an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS or ARS), also called tRNA-ligase. This enzyme catalyzes the esterification of a specific cognate amino acid or its precursor to one of all its compatible cognate tRNAs to form an aminoacyl-tRNA. The 20 different types of aa-tRNA are made by the 20 different aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, one for each amino acid of the genetic code. Once the tRNA is charged, a ribosome can transfer the amino acid from the tRNA onto a growing peptide chain via a reaction termed peptide condensation, and the tRNAs, no longer carrying amino acids, are released. Aminoacyl-tRNA, therefore, plays an important role in translation, the expression of genes to create proteins. Translation is carried out by ribosomes in the cytoplasm or endoplasmic reticulum after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus (Wikipedia).

SMP0119294

Pw120517 View Pathway
Protein

Protein Synthesis: Serine

In protein synthesis, a succession of transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules charged with appropriate amino acids are brought together with a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule and matched up by base-pairing through the anti-codons of the tRNA with successive codons of the mRNA. Charging or loading the appropriate amino acid onto its tRNA is carried out by an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS or ARS), also called tRNA-ligase. This enzyme catalyzes the esterification of a specific cognate amino acid or its precursor to one of all its compatible cognate tRNAs to form an aminoacyl-tRNA. The 20 different types of aa-tRNA are made by the 20 different aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, one for each amino acid of the genetic code. Once the tRNA is charged, a ribosome can transfer the amino acid from the tRNA onto a growing peptide chain via a reaction termed peptide condensation, and the tRNAs, no longer carrying amino acids, are released. Aminoacyl-tRNA, therefore, plays an important role in translation, the expression of genes to create proteins. Translation is carried out by ribosomes in the cytoplasm or endoplasmic reticulum after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus (Wikipedia).

SMP0112609

Pw113695 View Pathway
Protein

Protein Synthesis: Proline

In protein synthesis, a succession of transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules charged with appropriate amino acids are brought together with a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule and matched up by base-pairing through the anti-codons of the tRNA with successive codons of the mRNA. Charging or loading the appropriate amino acid onto its tRNA is carried out by an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS or ARS), also called tRNA-ligase. This enzyme catalyzes the esterification of a specific cognate amino acid or its precursor to one of all its compatible cognate tRNAs to form an aminoacyl-tRNA. The 20 different types of aa-tRNA are made by the 20 different aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, one for each amino acid of the genetic code. Once the tRNA is charged, a ribosome can transfer the amino acid from the tRNA onto a growing peptide chain via a reaction termed peptide condensation, and the tRNAs, no longer carrying amino acids, are released. Aminoacyl-tRNA, therefore, plays an important role in translation, the expression of genes to create proteins. Translation is carried out by ribosomes in the cytoplasm or endoplasmic reticulum after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus (Wikipedia).
Showing 1 - 10 of 48694 pathways