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Showing 1 - 10 of 48690 pathways
SMPDB ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins

SMP0121058

Pw122326 View Pathway
Drug Action

Piroxicam Action Action Pathway Xuan (Demo Purpose) 2

SMP0121055

Pw122323 View Pathway
Metabolic

Mevalonate Pathway

The Mevalonate Pathway is a necessary pathway that occurs in archaea, eukaryotes and select bacteria. It has mainly been studied with regard to cholesterol biosynthesis and how it relates to cardiovascular disease in humans, but has recently garnered attention for its many other essential roles within human pathology. The pathway begins in the cytoplasm with acetyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA, which interact with acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, coenzyme A and water to synthesize hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase. In turn, this synthase teams up with coenzyme A and a hydrogen ion in the endoplasmic reticulum to create 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA then pairs with 2NADPH, 2 hydrogen ions and is catalyzed by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase to produce (R)-mevalonate, also producing byproducts CoA and NADP. Exiting the endoplasmic reticulum, and entering the peroxisome, (R)-mevalonate uses the help of ATP and mevalonate kinase to create mevalonic acid (5P). This piece is especially important to the human species as decreased activity of the enzyme mevalonate kinase has been found to be a direct link to two auto-inflammatory disorders: MVA and HIDS. Using phosphomevalonate kinase and ATP, the pathway re-enters the cytoplasm and mevalonic acid (5P) converts to (R)-mevalonic acid-5-pyrophosphate and ADP. (R)-mevalonic acid-5-pyrophosphate, ATP and diphosphomevalonate decarboxylase work together to create phosphate, carbon dioxide, ADP and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. Re-entering the peroxisome, isopentenyl diphosphate delta isomerase 1 is waiting to propel isopentenyl pyrophosphate into dimethylallylpyrophosphate. This pushes the pathway back into the cytoplasm, where another isopentenyl pyrophosphate molecule and the enzyme farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase create pyrophosphate and geranyl-PP. Yet another isopentenyl pyrophosphate molecules works with farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase to produce pyrophosphate and farnesyl pyrophosphate. Now in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, 2 farnesyl pyrophosphate molecules with the help of NADPH and a hydrogen ion catalyze with squalene synthase and create squalene. This is an important first step in the specific hepatic cholesterol pathway. Remaining in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, squalene, FMNH, oxygen and squalene monooxygenase synthesize (S)-2,3-epoxysqualene. This comes along with the byproducts of flavin mononucleotide, a hydrogen ion and water. In the final reaction within this pathway, lanesterol synthase converts (S)-2,3-epoxysqualene to lanosterin. Not pictured in this pathway, lanosterin will eventually be converted to cholesterol, an important part of many functions in the human body.

SMP0119305

Pw120528 View Pathway
Protein

Protein Synthesis: Valine

In protein synthesis, a succession of transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules charged with appropriate amino acids are brought together with a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule and matched up by base-pairing through the anti-codons of the tRNA with successive codons of the mRNA. Charging or loading the appropriate amino acid onto its tRNA is carried out by an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS or ARS), also called tRNA-ligase. This enzyme catalyzes the esterification of a specific cognate amino acid or its precursor to one of all its compatible cognate tRNAs to form an aminoacyl-tRNA. The 20 different types of aa-tRNA are made by the 20 different aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, one for each amino acid of the genetic code. Once the tRNA is charged, a ribosome can transfer the amino acid from the tRNA onto a growing peptide chain via a reaction termed peptide condensation, and the tRNAs, no longer carrying amino acids, are released. Aminoacyl-tRNA, therefore, plays an important role in translation, the expression of genes to create proteins. Translation is carried out by ribosomes in the cytoplasm or endoplasmic reticulum after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus (Wikipedia).

SMP0119304

Pw120527 View Pathway
Protein

Protein Synthesis: Tyrosine

In protein synthesis, a succession of transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules charged with appropriate amino acids are brought together with a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule and matched up by base-pairing through the anti-codons of the tRNA with successive codons of the mRNA. Charging or loading the appropriate amino acid onto its tRNA is carried out by an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS or ARS), also called tRNA-ligase. This enzyme catalyzes the esterification of a specific cognate amino acid or its precursor to one of all its compatible cognate tRNAs to form an aminoacyl-tRNA. The 20 different types of aa-tRNA are made by the 20 different aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, one for each amino acid of the genetic code. Once the tRNA is charged, a ribosome can transfer the amino acid from the tRNA onto a growing peptide chain via a reaction termed peptide condensation, and the tRNAs, no longer carrying amino acids, are released. Aminoacyl-tRNA, therefore, plays an important role in translation, the expression of genes to create proteins. Translation is carried out by ribosomes in the cytoplasm or endoplasmic reticulum after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus (Wikipedia).

SMP0119303

Pw120526 View Pathway
Protein

Protein Synthesis: Tryptophan

In protein synthesis, a succession of transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules charged with appropriate amino acids are brought together with a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule and matched up by base-pairing through the anti-codons of the tRNA with successive codons of the mRNA. Charging or loading the appropriate amino acid onto its tRNA is carried out by an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS or ARS), also called tRNA-ligase. This enzyme catalyzes the esterification of a specific cognate amino acid or its precursor to one of all its compatible cognate tRNAs to form an aminoacyl-tRNA. The 20 different types of aa-tRNA are made by the 20 different aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, one for each amino acid of the genetic code. Once the tRNA is charged, a ribosome can transfer the amino acid from the tRNA onto a growing peptide chain via a reaction termed peptide condensation, and the tRNAs, no longer carrying amino acids, are released. Aminoacyl-tRNA, therefore, plays an important role in translation, the expression of genes to create proteins. Translation is carried out by ribosomes in the cytoplasm or endoplasmic reticulum after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus (Wikipedia).

SMP0119302

Pw120525 View Pathway
Protein

Protein Synthesis: Threonine

In protein synthesis, a succession of transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules charged with appropriate amino acids are brought together with a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule and matched up by base-pairing through the anti-codons of the tRNA with successive codons of the mRNA. Charging or loading the appropriate amino acid onto its tRNA is carried out by an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS or ARS), also called tRNA-ligase. This enzyme catalyzes the esterification of a specific cognate amino acid or its precursor to one of all its compatible cognate tRNAs to form an aminoacyl-tRNA. The 20 different types of aa-tRNA are made by the 20 different aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, one for each amino acid of the genetic code. Once the tRNA is charged, a ribosome can transfer the amino acid from the tRNA onto a growing peptide chain via a reaction termed peptide condensation, and the tRNAs, no longer carrying amino acids, are released. Aminoacyl-tRNA, therefore, plays an important role in translation, the expression of genes to create proteins. Translation is carried out by ribosomes in the cytoplasm or endoplasmic reticulum after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus (Wikipedia).

SMP0119294

Pw120517 View Pathway
Protein

Protein Synthesis: Serine

In protein synthesis, a succession of transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules charged with appropriate amino acids are brought together with a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule and matched up by base-pairing through the anti-codons of the tRNA with successive codons of the mRNA. Charging or loading the appropriate amino acid onto its tRNA is carried out by an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS or ARS), also called tRNA-ligase. This enzyme catalyzes the esterification of a specific cognate amino acid or its precursor to one of all its compatible cognate tRNAs to form an aminoacyl-tRNA. The 20 different types of aa-tRNA are made by the 20 different aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, one for each amino acid of the genetic code. Once the tRNA is charged, a ribosome can transfer the amino acid from the tRNA onto a growing peptide chain via a reaction termed peptide condensation, and the tRNAs, no longer carrying amino acids, are released. Aminoacyl-tRNA, therefore, plays an important role in translation, the expression of genes to create proteins. Translation is carried out by ribosomes in the cytoplasm or endoplasmic reticulum after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus (Wikipedia).

SMP0112609

Pw113695 View Pathway
Protein

Protein Synthesis: Proline

In protein synthesis, a succession of transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules charged with appropriate amino acids are brought together with a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule and matched up by base-pairing through the anti-codons of the tRNA with successive codons of the mRNA. Charging or loading the appropriate amino acid onto its tRNA is carried out by an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS or ARS), also called tRNA-ligase. This enzyme catalyzes the esterification of a specific cognate amino acid or its precursor to one of all its compatible cognate tRNAs to form an aminoacyl-tRNA. The 20 different types of aa-tRNA are made by the 20 different aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, one for each amino acid of the genetic code. Once the tRNA is charged, a ribosome can transfer the amino acid from the tRNA onto a growing peptide chain via a reaction termed peptide condensation, and the tRNAs, no longer carrying amino acids, are released. Aminoacyl-tRNA, therefore, plays an important role in translation, the expression of genes to create proteins. Translation is carried out by ribosomes in the cytoplasm or endoplasmic reticulum after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus (Wikipedia).

SMP0111876

Pw112934 View Pathway
Protein

Protein Synthesis: Phenylalanine

In protein synthesis, a succession of transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules charged with appropriate amino acids are brought together with a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule and matched up by base-pairing through the anti-codons of the tRNA with successive codons of the mRNA. Charging or loading the appropriate amino acid onto its tRNA is carried out by an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS or ARS), also called tRNA-ligase. This enzyme catalyzes the esterification of a specific cognate amino acid or its precursor to one of all its compatible cognate tRNAs to form an aminoacyl-tRNA. The 20 different types of aa-tRNA are made by the 20 different aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, one for each amino acid of the genetic code. Once the tRNA is charged, a ribosome can transfer the amino acid from the tRNA onto a growing peptide chain via a reaction termed peptide condensation, and the tRNAs, no longer carrying amino acids, are released. Aminoacyl-tRNA, therefore, plays an important role in translation, the expression of genes to create proteins. Translation is carried out by ribosomes in the cytoplasm or endoplasmic reticulum after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus (Wikipedia).

SMP0111875

Pw112933 View Pathway
Protein

Protein Synthesis: Methionine

In protein synthesis, a succession of transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules charged with appropriate amino acids are brought together with a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule and matched up by base-pairing through the anti-codons of the tRNA with successive codons of the mRNA. Charging or loading the appropriate amino acid onto its tRNA is carried out by an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS or ARS), also called tRNA-ligase. This enzyme catalyzes the esterification of a specific cognate amino acid or its precursor to one of all its compatible cognate tRNAs to form an aminoacyl-tRNA. The 20 different types of aa-tRNA are made by the 20 different aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, one for each amino acid of the genetic code. Once the tRNA is charged, a ribosome can transfer the amino acid from the tRNA onto a growing peptide chain via a reaction termed peptide condensation, and the tRNAs, no longer carrying amino acids, are released. Aminoacyl-tRNA, therefore, plays an important role in translation, the expression of genes to create proteins. Translation is carried out by ribosomes in the cytoplasm or endoplasmic reticulum after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus (Wikipedia).
Showing 1 - 10 of 48690 pathways