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Pathways

Showing 1 - 10 of 404 pathways
SMPDB ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins

SMP00679

Pw000656 View Pathway
drug action

3-Methylthiofentanyl Action Pathway

Homo sapiens
Methadyl Acetate exerts its analgesic by acting on the opioid receptors of sensory neurons. Binding to the opioid receptor activates associated G(i) proteins. These subsequently act to inhibit adenylate cyclase, reducing the level of intracellular cAMP. G(i) also activates potassium channels and inactivates calcium channels causing the neuron to hyperpolarize. The end result is decreased nerve conduction and reduced neurotransmitter release, which blocks the perception of pain signals.

SMP00737

Pw000714 View Pathway
drug action

Abacavir Action Pathway

Homo sapiens
Abacavir is a carbocyclic synthetic nucleoside analogue and an antiviral agent. Intracellularly, abacavir is converted by cellular enzymes to the active metabolite carbovir triphosphate, an analogue of deoxyguanosine-5'-triphosphate (dGTP). Carbovir triphosphate inhibits the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) both by competing with the natural substrate dGTP and by its incorporation into viral DNA. Viral DNA growth is then terminated.

SMP00265

Pw000291 View Pathway
drug action

Abciximab Action Pathway

Homo sapiens
Abciximab binds to the intact platelet GPIIb/IIIa receptor, which is a member of the integrin family of adhesion receptors and the major platelet surface receptor involved in platelet aggregation. This binding is thought to involve steric hindrance and/or conformational alterations which block access of large molecules to the receptor rather than direct interaction with the RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) binding site of GPlIb/IIIa.

SMP00296

Pw000364 View Pathway
drug action

Acebutolol Action Pathway

Homo sapiens
Acebutolol is a selective β1-receptor antagonist, which possesses mild intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA) in its therapeutically effective dose range. Activation of β1-receptors by epinephrine increases the heart rate and output. Acebutolol blocks these receptors which lowers the heart rate and blood pressure. In addition, beta blockers prevent the release of renin, which is a hormone produced by the kidneys which leads to constriction of blood vessels.

SMP00269

Pw000312 View Pathway
drug action

Acenocoumarol Action Pathway

Homo sapiens
Acenocoumarol is an anticoagulant that inhibits the liver enzyme vitamin K reductase. This leads to the depletion of the reduced form of vitamin K (vitamin KH2). As vitamin K is a cofactor for the gamma-carboxylation and subsequent activation of the vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors (II, VII, IX, and X), this ultimately results in reduced cleavage of fibrinogen into fibrin and decreased coagulability of the blood.

SMP00710

Pw000687 View Pathway
drug action

Acetaminophen Action Pathway

Homo sapiens
The mechanism of action of Acetaminophen is thought to be due to its ability to block prostaglandin synthesis by inhibiting cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 (COX-1 and -2), also called prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 and 2. COX-1 and -2 catalyze the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin G2 and prostaglandin G2 to prostglandin H2. Prostaglandin H2 is the precursor to a number of prostaglandins (e.g. PGE2) involved in fever, pain, swelling, inflammation, and platelet aggregation. Acetaminophen antagonizes COX by binding to the upper portion of the active site, preventing its substrate, arachidonic acid, from entering the active site. Prostaglandins have been shown in many animal models to be mediators of certain kinds of intraocular inflammation. In studies performed in animal eyes, prostaglandins have been shown to produce disruption of the blood-aqueous humor barrier, vasodilation, increased vascular permeability, leukocytosis, and increased intraocular pressure.

SMP00083

Pw000128 View Pathway
drug action

Acetylsalicylic Acid Action Pathway

Homo sapiens
Acetylsalicylic acid, also known as ASA or aspirin, belongs to a class of drugs known as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). In addition to its anti-inflammatory properties, aspirin also acts as an analgesic, antipyretic and antithrombotic agent. Like most other NSAIDs, aspirin exerts its therapeutic effects by inhibiting prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 and 2, better known as cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 or simply COX-1 and -2. COX-1 and -2 catalyze the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin G2 and prostaglandin G2 to prostaglandin H2. Prostaglandin H2 is the precursor to a number of other prostaglandins, such as prostaglandin E2, involved in pain, fever and inflammation. The antipyretic properties of aspirin arise from inhibition of prostaglandin E2 synthesis in the preoptic region of the hypothalamus. Interference with adhesion and migration of granulocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages at sites of inflammation account for its anti-inflammatory effects. The analgesic effects of aspirin likely occur due to peripheral action at the site of injury and possibly within the CNS. Aspirin is unique from other NSAIDs in that it is an irreversible COX inhibitor. Aspirin irreversibly acetylates a serine side chain of COX rendering the enzyme inactive. Enzyme activity can only be regained by production of more cyclooxygenase. This unique property of aspirin and its higher selectivity for COX-1 over COX-2 makes it an effective antiplatelet agent. Platelets contain COX-1, a key enzyme in the production thromboxane A2 (TXA2), which is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation. Since platelets lack the ability to make more enzyme, TXA2 production is inhibited for the lifetime of the platelet (approximately 8 – 12 days). Aspirin is commonly used at low doses to prevent cardiovascular events such as strokes and heart attacks. At higher doses, aspirin may be used as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic. Aspirin may cause gastric irritation and bleeding by inhibiting the synthesis of prostaglandins that enhance and maintain the protective gastric mucous layer.

SMP59881

Pw060826 View Pathway
drug action

Acrivastine H1-Antihistamine Action

Homo sapiens
Acrivastine is a second-generation alkylamine H1-antihistamine. H1-antihistamines interfere with the agonist action of histamine at the H1 receptor and are administered to attenuate inflammatory process in order to treat conditions such as allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and urticaria. Reducing the activity of the NF-κB immune response transcription factor through the phospholipase C and the phosphatidylinositol (PIP2) signalling pathways also decreases antigen presentation and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, cell adhesion molecules, and chemotactic factors. Furthermore, lowering calcium ion concentration leads to increased mast cell stability which reduces further histamine release. First-generation antihistamines readily cross the blood-brain barrier and cause sedation and other adverse central nervous system (CNS) effects (e.g. nervousness and insomnia). Second-generation antihistamines are more selective for H1-receptors of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and do not cross the blood-brain barrier. Consequently, these newer drugs elicit fewer adverse drug reactions.

SMP00418

Pw000436 View Pathway
drug action

Adefovir Dipivoxil Action Pathway

Homo sapiens
Adefovir dipivoxil is an ester prodrug of adefovir, a nucleotide analogue used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. Adefovir dipivoxil is taken up into the liver cell and is cleaved into adefovir by intracellular esterases. Adefovir is subsequently phosphorylated first by adenylate kinases and then by nucleoside diphosphate kinases into adefovir diphosphate. Adefovir diphosphate is an analogue of deoxyadenosine triphosphate (dATP) and competes with dATP for binding to the viral DNA polymerase and subsequent incorporation into the growing DNA strand. Once incorporated into the DNA, adefovir causes chain termination, thus preventing viral replication.

SMP62881

Pw063838 View Pathway
drug action

Alcaftadine H1-Antihistamine Action

Homo sapiens
Alcaftadine is a second-generation piperidine H1-antihistamine. H1-antihistamines interfere with the agonist action of histamine at the H1 receptor and are administered to attenuate inflammatory process in order to treat conditions such as allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and urticaria. Reducing the activity of the NF-κB immune response transcription factor through the phospholipase C and the phosphatidylinositol (PIP2) signalling pathways also decreases antigen presentation and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, cell adhesion molecules, and chemotactic factors. Furthermore, lowering calcium ion concentration leads to increased mast cell stability which reduces further histamine release. First-generation antihistamines readily cross the blood-brain barrier and cause sedation and other adverse central nervous system (CNS) effects (e.g. nervousness and insomnia). Second-generation antihistamines are more selective for H1-receptors of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and do not cross the blood-brain barrier. Consequently, these newer drugs elicit fewer adverse drug reactions.
Showing 1 - 10 of 404 pathways