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Pathways

Showing 1 - 10 of 64 pathways
SMPDB ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins

SMP00640

Pw000616 View Pathway
drug metabolism

Acetaminophen Metabolism Pathway

Homo sapiens
Acetaminophen (APAP) is metabolized primarily in the liver. Glucuronidation is the main route, accounting for 45-55% of APAP metabolism, and is mediatied by UGT1A1, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, UGT2B15 in the liver and UGT1A10 in the gut. APAP can also by metabolized via sulfation, accounting for 30-35% of the metabolism. In the liver, this step is catalyzed by the sulfotransferases SULT1A1, SULT1A3, SULT1A4, SULT1E1 and SULT2A1. Moreover, APAP can also be activated to form the toxic N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI) under the mediation of CYP3A4, CYP2E1, CYP2D6 CYP1A2, CYP2E1 and CYP2A6.

SMP00629

Pw000605 View Pathway
drug metabolism

Adefovir Dipivoxil Metabolism Pathway

Homo sapiens
Adefovir dipivoxil is an ester prodrug of adefovir, a nucleotide analogue used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. Adefovir dipivoxil is taken up into the liver cell and is cleaved into adefovir by intracellular esterases. Adefovir is subsequently phosphorylated first by adenylate kinases and then by nucleoside diphosphate kinases into adefovir diphosphate. Adefovir diphosphate is an analogue of deoxyadenosine triphosphate (dATP) and competes with dATP for binding to the viral DNA polymerase and subsequent incorporation into the growing DNA strand. Once incorporated into the DNA, adefovir causes chain termination, thus preventing viral replication.

SMP00651

Pw000627 View Pathway
drug metabolism

Artemether Metabolism Pathway

Homo sapiens
Artemether is a semisynthetic derivative of artemisinin, a phytoconstituent that acts as a short-acting antimalarial agent and is used to treat uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Artemisinin derivatives kill parasites more rapidly than conventional antimalarial drugs, and are active against both the sexual and asexual stages of the parasite cycle. However due to their short half-life (and to prevent resistance development) artemisinin compounds are often combined with long-acting antimalarial drugs. Artemeter is administered orally and as an oil-based intramuscular injection. The antimalarial activity of artemether and other artemisinin derivatives is a result of the peroxide bridge found in the active metabolite dihydroartemisinin. Dihydroartemisinin is formed from the rapid demethylation of artmether via CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. It then undergoes glucuronidation catalyzed by the UDP-glucuronosyltransferases UGT1A9 and UGT2B7 into inactive metabolites that are eliminated in the bile.

SMP00645

Pw000621 View Pathway
drug metabolism

Azathioprine Metabolism Pathway

Homo sapiens
Azathioprine is a purine antimetabolite prodrug that exerts cytotoxic effects via three mechanisms: via incorporation of thiodeoxyguanosine triphosphate into DNA and thioguanosine triphosphate into RNA, inhibition of de novo synthesis of purine nucleotides, and inhibition of Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1, which induces apoptosis of activated T cells. Azathioprine is first converted _in vivo_ to mercaptopurine in the liver. Mercaptopurine then travels through the bloodstream and is transported into cells via nucleoside transporters. Mercaptopurine is converted to thioguanosince diphosphate through a series of metabolic reactions that produces the metabolic intermediates, thioinosine 5’-monophosphate, thioxanthine monophosphate, and thioguanosine monophosphate. Thioguanosine diphosphate is then converted via a thiodeoxyguanosine diphosphate intermediate to thiodeoxyguanosine triphosphate, which is incorporated into DNA. Thioguanosine diphosphate is also converted to thioguanosine triphosphate which is incorporated into RNA. The thioguanosine triphosphate metabolite also inhibits Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1, a plasma membrane-associated small GTPase that regulates cellular processes, inducing apoptosis in activated T cells. Finally, de novo synthesis of purine nucleotides is inhibited by the methyl-thioinosine 5’-monophosphate metabolite, which inhibits amidophosphoribosyl-transferase, the enzyme that catalyzes one of the first steps in this pathway.

SMP00591

Pw000567 View Pathway
drug metabolism

Benazepril Metabolism Pathway

Homo sapiens
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is a homeostatic mechanism for regulating hemodynamics, water and electrolyte balance. During sympathetic stimulation or when renal blood pressure or blood flow is reduced, renin is released from granular cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus in the kidneys. In the blood stream, renin cleaves circulating angiotensinogen to angiotensin I (ATI), which is cleaved by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) to angiotensin II (ATII). ATII increases blood pressure using a number of mechanisms. First, it stimulates the secretion of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. Aldosterone travels to the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and collecting tubule of nephrons where it increases sodium and water reabsorption by increasing the number of sodium channels and sodium-potassium ATPases on cell membranes. ATII also stimulates the secretion of vasopressin (also known as antidiuretic hormone or ADH) from the posterior pituitary gland. ADH stimulates further water reabsorption in the kidneys via insertion of aquaporin-2 channels on the apical surface of cells of the DCT and collecting tubules. Second, ATII increases blood pressure through direct arterial vasoconstriction. Stimulation of the Type 1 ATII receptor on vascular smooth muscle cells leads to a cascade of events resulting in myocyte contraction and vasoconstriction. In addition to these major effects, ATII induces the thirst response via stimulation of hypothalamic neurons. ACE inhibitors inhibit the rapid conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II and antagonize RAAS-induced increases in blood pressure. ACE (also known as kininase II) is also involved in the enzymatic deactivation of bradykinin, a vasodilator. Inhibiting the deactivation of bradykinin increases bradykinin levels and sustains its effects causing increased vasodilation and decreased blood pressure (mechanism not shown). Benazepril is an ACE inhibitor prodrug that is hydrolyzed by liver esterases to its active form, benazeprilat. Benazeprilat competes with angiotensin I for binding to ACE and effectively blocks the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. The resulting decreased concentration of angiotensin II confers blood pressure lowering effects to benazepril. Increased bradykinin levels resulting from decreased bradykinin inactivation may also contribute to the effects of benazepril. Benazepril may be used to treat hypertension, congestive heart failure and chronic renal failure.

SMP00607

Pw000583 View Pathway
drug metabolism

Capecitabine Metabolism Pathway

Homo sapiens
Capecitabine is a fluoropyrimidine anticancer drug. After absorption, it is metabolized in the liver to the intermediate 5’-deoxy-5-fluorouridine, which is subsequently converted into 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) by intracellular thymidine phosphorylase. 5-FU exerts cytotoxic effects on the cell by direct incorporation into DNA and RNA as well as by inhibiting thymidylate synthase. Since thymidine phosphorylase is present at 3-10 fold higher concentration in cancer cells compared normal cells, capecitabine’s cytotoxic effect is selective for cancer cells.

SMP00634

Pw000610 View Pathway
drug metabolism

Carbamazepine Metabolism Pathway

Homo sapiens
Carbamazepine is a drug used in the treatment of epilepsy, bipolar disorder, trigeminal neuralgia, and other psychiatric disorders. Carbamazepine is almost entirely metabolized in the liver, with the primary metabolic pathway being conversion to 10,11-epoxycarbamazepine. Ring hydroxylation to 2-hydroxycarbamazepine and 3-hydroxycarbamazepine represent a minor metabolic route, presumably though a carbamazepine 2,3-epoxide intermediate. Potential bioactivation occurs via CYP3A4-mediated secondary oxidation of 2-hydroxycarbamazepine to the potentially reactive carbamazepine iminoquinone and of 3-hydroxycarbamazepine to form other reactive metabolites. Radicals can also be formed from metabolism of 3-hydroxycarbamazepine by myeloperoxidase. Oxcarbazepine, an anticonvulsant used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy, is converted to 10,11-dihydroxycarbamazepine via 10-hydroxycarbazepine.

SMP00644

Pw000620 View Pathway
drug metabolism

Celecoxib Metabolism Pathway

Homo sapiens
Celecoxib, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), is a selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), also known as prostaglandin G/H synthase 2. Like other NSAIDs, celecoxib exerts its effects by inhibiting the synthesis of prostaglandins involved in pain, fever and inflammation. COX-2 catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin G2 (PGE2) and PGE2 to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2). In the COX-2 catalyzed pathway, PGH2 is the precusor of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and I2 (PGI2). PGE2 induces pain, fever, erythema and edema. Celecoxib antagonizes COX-2 by binding to the upper portion of the active site, preventing its substrate, arachidonic acid, from entering the active site. Similar to other COX-2 inhibitors, such as rofecoxib and valdecoxib, celecoxib appears to exploit slight differences in the size of the COX-1 and -2 binding pockets to gain selectivity. COX-1 contains isoleucines at positions 434 and 523, whereas COX-2 has slightly smaller valines occupying these positions. Studies support the notion that the extra methylene on the isoleucine side chains in COX-1 adds enough bulk to proclude celecoxib from binding. Celecoxib is approximately ten times more selective for COX-2 than COX-1. Celecoxib is used mainly to treat rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis which require something more potent than aspirin. The analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects of celecoxib occur as a result of decreased prostaglandin synthesis. The first part of this figure depicts the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic pathway of celecoxib. The latter portion of this figure depicts celecoxib’s potential involvement in platelet aggregation. Prostaglandin synthesis varies across different tissue types. Platelets, which are anuclear cells derived from fragmentation of megakaryocytes, contain COX-1, but not COX-2. COX-1 activity in platelets is required for thromboxane A2 (TxA2)-mediated platelet aggregation. Platelet activation and coagulation do not normally occur in intact blood vessels. After blood vessel injury, platelets adhere to the subendothelial collagen at the site of injury. Activation of collagen receptors initiates phospholipase C (PLC)-mediated signaling cascades resulting in the release of intracellular calcium from the dense tubula system. The increase in intracellular calcium activates kinases required for morphological change, transition to the procoagulant surface, secretion of granular contents, activation of glycoproteins, and the activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Activation of PLA2 results in the liberation of arachidonic acid, a precursor to prostaglandin synthesis, from membrane phospholipids. The accumulation of TxA2, ADP and thrombin mediates further platelet recruitment and signal amplification. TxA2 and ADP stimulate their respective G-protein coupled receptors, thomboxane A2 receptor and P2Y purinoreceptor 12, and inhibit the production of cAMP via adenylate cyclase inhibition. This counteracts the adenylate cyclase stimulatory effects of the platelet aggregation inhibitor, PGI2, produced by neighbouring endothelial cells. Platelet adhesion, cytoskeletal remodeling, granular secretion and signal amplification are independent processes that lead to the activation of the fibrinogen receptor. Fibrinogen receptor activation exposes fibrinogen binding sites and allows platelet cross-linking and aggregation to occur. Neighbouring endothelial cells found in blood vessels express both COX-1 and COX-2. COX-2 in endothelial cells mediates the synthesis of PGI2, an effective platelet aggregation inhibitor and vasodilator, while COX-1 mediates vasoconstriction and stimulates platelet aggregation. PGI2 produced by endothelial cells encounters platelets in the blood stream and binds to the G-protein coupled prostacyclin receptor. This causes G-protein mediated activation of adenylate cyclase, which catalyzes the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic AMP (cAMP). Four cAMP molecules then bind to the regulatory subunits of the inactive cAMP-dependent protein kinase holoenzyme causing dissociation of the regulatory subunits and leaving two active catalytic subunit monomers. The active subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalyze the phosphorylation of a number of proteins. Phosphorylation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) inhibits the release of calcium from the ER. This in turn inhibits the calcium-dependent events, including PLA2 activation, involved in platelet activation and aggregation. Inhibition of PLA2 decreases intracellular TxA2 and inhibits the platelet aggregation pathway. cAMP-dependent kinase also phosphorylates the actin-associated protein, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein. Phosphorylation inhibits protein activity, which includes cytoskeleton reorganization and platelet activation. Celecoxib preferentially inhibits COX-2 with little activity against COX-1. COX-2 inhibition in endothelial cells decreases the production of PGI2 and the ability of these cells to inhibit platelet aggregation and stimulate vasodilation. These effects are thought to be responsible for the adverse cardiovascular effects observed with other selective COX-2 inhibitors, such as rofecoxib, which has since been withdrawn from the market.

SMP00592

Pw000568 View Pathway
drug metabolism

Cilazapril Metabolism Pathway

Homo sapiens
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is a homeostatic mechanism for regulating hemodynamics, water and electrolyte balance. During sympathetic stimulation or when renal blood pressure or blood flow is reduced, renin is released from granular cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus in the kidneys. In the blood stream, renin cleaves circulating angiotensinogen to angiotensin I (ATI), which is cleaved by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) to angiotensin II (ATII). ATII increases blood pressure using a number of mechanisms. First, it stimulates the secretion of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. Aldosterone travels to the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and collecting tubule of nephrons where it increases sodium and water reabsorption by increasing the number of sodium channels and sodium-potassium ATPases on cell membranes. ATII also stimulates the secretion of vasopressin (also known as antidiuretic hormone or ADH) from the posterior pituitary gland. ADH stimulates further water reabsorption in the kidneys via insertion of aquaporin-2 channels on the apical surface of cells of the DCT and collecting tubules. Second, ATII increases blood pressure through direct arterial vasoconstriction. Stimulation of the Type 1 ATII receptor on vascular smooth muscle cells leads to a cascade of events resulting in myocyte contraction and vasoconstriction. In addition to these major effects, ATII induces the thirst response via stimulation of hypothalamic neurons. ACE inhibitors inhibit the rapid conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II and antagonize RAAS-induced increases in blood pressure. ACE (also known as kininase II) is also involved in the enzymatic deactivation of bradykinin, a vasodilator. Inhibiting the deactivation of bradykinin increases bradykinin levels and sustains its effects causing increased vasodilation and decreased blood pressure (mechanism not shown). Cilazapril, a pyridazine compound, is an ACE inhibitor prodrug that is hydrolyzed in vivo to its active form, cilazaprilat. Cilazaprilat competes with angiotensin I for binding to ACE and effectively inhibits the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. The resulting decreased level of angiotensin II confers blood pressure lowering effects to cilazapril. Inhibiting the breakdown of bradykinin may also play a role in decreasing blood pressure. Cilazapril may be used to treat hypertension, congestive heart failure and nephropathy.

SMP00617

Pw000593 View Pathway
drug metabolism

Cimetidine Metabolism Pathway

Homo sapiens
Cimetidine binds to histamine H2-receptors located on the basolateral membrane of the gastric parietal cell, blocking histamine effects. This competitive inhibition results in reduced gastric acid secretion and a reduction in gastric volume and acidity.
Showing 1 - 10 of 64 pathways