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Showing 55701 - 55720 of 55723 compounds

Compound ID

Compound

Pathways

PW_C104584

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2-Oxobutanedioate

Oxaloacetic acid, also known as oxosuccinic acid or oxalacetic acid, is a four-carbon dicarboxylic acid appearing as an intermediate of the citric acid cycle. In vivo, oxaloacetate (the ionized form of oxaloacetic acid) is formed by the oxidation of L-malate, catalyzed by malate dehydrogenase, and reacts with Acetyl-CoA to form citrate, catalyzed by citrate synthase.(wikipedia) A class of ketodicarboxylic acids derived from oxalic acid. Oxaloacetic acid is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle and is converted to aspartic acidD by a transamination reaction.

PW_C104585

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Citrate

Citrate is a key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability. Citrate has the chemical formula C6H5O7, and an average molecular weight of 189.0997. Citrate is involved in few pathways, which are LPS and Citrate Signaling and Inflammation Pathway, LPS and Citrate Signaling and Inflammation Pathway, LPS and Citrate Signaling and Inflammation Pathway, and LPS and Citrate Signaling and Inflammation Pathway.

PW_C104587

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Lipopolysaccharide

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans, are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide joined by a covalent bond; they are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, act as endotoxins and elicit strong immune responses in animals. LPS is the major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, contributing greatly to the structural integrity of the bacteria, and protecting the membrane from certain kinds of chemical attack. LPS also increases the negative charge of the cell membrane and helps stabilize the overall membrane structure. It is of crucial importance to gram negative bacteria, whose death results if it is mutated or removed. LPS is an endotoxin, and induces a strong response from normal animal immune systems. LPS acts as the prototypical endotoxin because it binds the CD14/TLR4/MD2 receptor complex, which promotes the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in many cell types, but especially in macrophages. In Immunology, the term "LPS challenge" refers to the process of exposing a subject to an LPS which may act as a toxin. LPS is also an exogenous pyrogen (external fever-inducing substance). Being of crucial importance to gram negative bacteria, these molecules make candidate targets for new antimicrobial agents. LPS comprises three parts: 1. O antigen (or O polysaccharide). 2. Core polysaccharide. 3. Lipid A. LPS Core domain always contains an oligosaccharide component which attaches directly to lipid A and commonly contains sugars such as heptose and 3-deoxy-D-mannooctulosonic Acid (also known as KDO, keto-deoxyoctulosonate).[2] The LPS Cores of many bacteria also contain non-carbohydrate components, such as phosphate, amino acids, and ethanolamine substitutents.(from wiki). This card shows the LPS core component in E.coli.

PW_C104588

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2-Hydroxybutanedioate

Malic acid is a tart-tasting organic dicarboxylic acid that plays a role in many sour or tart foods. In its ionised form it is malate, an intermediate of the TCA cycle along with fumarate. It can also be formed from pyruvate as one of the anaplerotic reactions.

PW_C104593

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Insulin

Insulin is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body. It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein by promoting the absorption of carbohydrates, especially glucose from the blood into liver, fat and skeletal muscle cells. In these tissues the absorbed glucose is converted into either glycogen via glycogenesis or fats (triglycerides) via lipogenesis, or, in the case of the liver, into both. Glucose production and secretion by the liver is strongly inhibited by high concentrations of insulin in the blood. Circulating insulin also affects the synthesis of proteins in a wide variety of tissues. It is therefore an anabolic hormone, promoting the conversion of small molecules in the blood into large molecules inside the cells. Low insulin levels in the blood have the opposite effect by promoting widespread catabolism, especially of reserve body fat.

PW_C104596

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Glyceryl 1,2-dinitrate

Glyceryl 1,2-dinitrate has the chemical formula C3H6N2O7, and an average molecular weight of 182.088. Glyceryl 1,2-dinitrate is involved in the Nitric Oxide Signaling Pathway.

PW_C104650

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4,4-dimethyl-14α-hydroxymethyl-5α-cholesta-8,24-dien-3β-ol

4,4-Dimethyl-14α-hydroxymethyl-5α-cholesta-8,24-dien-3β-ol has the chemical formula C30H50O2, and an average molecular weight of 442.728. 4,4-Dimethyl-14α-hydroxymethyl-5α-cholesta-8,24-dien-3β-ol is involved in the Bloch Pathway (Cholesterol Biosynthesis) .

PW_C104651

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4,4-dimethyl-14α-formyl-5α-cholesta-8,24-dien-3β-ol

4,4-Dimethyl-14α-formyl-5α-cholesta-8,24-dien-3β-ol has the chemical formula C30H48O2, and an average molecular weight of 440.712. 4,4-Dimethyl-14α-formyl-5α-cholesta-8,24-dien-3β-ol is involved in the Bloch Pathway (Cholesterol Biosynthesis) .

PW_C104652

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4,4-dimethyl-5α-cholesta-8,14,24-trien-3β-ol

4,4-Dimethyl-5α-cholesta-8,14,24-trien-3β-ol has the chemical formula C29H46O, and an average molecular weight of 410.6749. 4,4-Dimethyl-5α-cholesta-8,14,24-trien-3β-ol is involved in the Bloch Pathway (Cholesterol Biosynthesis) .

PW_C104653

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4α-hydroxymethyl-4β-methyl-5α-cholesta-8,24-dien-3β-ol

4α-hydroxymethyl-4β-methyl-5α-cholesta-8,24-dien-3β-ol has the chemical formula C29H48O2, and an average molecular weight of 428.701. 4α-hydroxymethyl-4β-methyl-5α-cholesta-8,24-dien-3β-ol is involved in the Bloch Pathway (Cholesterol Biosynthesis) .

PW_C104655

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4a-carboxy-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol

4a-Carboxy-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol has the chemical formula C29H46O3, and an average molecular weight of 442.6737. 4a-Carboxy-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol is involved in the Bloch Pathway (Cholesterol Biosynthesis) .

PW_C104656

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4,4-dimethyl-14α-hydroxymethyl-5α-cholesta-8-en-3β-ol

4,4-Dimethyl-14α-hydroxymethyl-5α-cholesta-8-en-3β-ol has the chemical formula C30H52O2, and an average molecular weight of 444.744. 4,4-Dimethyl-14α-hydroxymethyl-5α-cholesta-8-en-3β-ol is involved in the Kandutsch-Russell Pathway (Cholesterol Biosynthesis).

PW_C104657

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4,4-Dimethyl-14α-formyl-5α-cholest-8-en-3β-ol

4,4-Dimethyl-14α-formyl-5α-cholest-8-en-3β-ol has the chemical formula C30H50O2, and an average molecular weight of 442.728. 4,4-Dimethyl-14α-formyl-5α-cholest-8-en-3β-ol is involved in the Kandutsch-Russell Pathway (Cholesterol Biosynthesis).

PW_C104658

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4,4-Dimethyl-5α-cholesta-8,14-dien-3β-ol

4,4-dimethylcholesta-8,14-dien-3-ol

PW_C104659

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4α-methyl-5α-cholesta-8-en-3-ol

4α-methyl-5α-cholesta-8-en-3-ol has the chemical formula C28H48O, and an average molecular weight of 400.691. 4α-methyl-5α-cholesta-8-en-3-ol is involved in the Kandutsch-Russell Pathway (Cholesterol Biosynthesis).

PW_C104696

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Indole-5,6-quinone-2-carboxylate

Indole-5,6-quinone-2-carboxylate has the chemical formula C9H4NO4, and an average molecular weight of 190.135. Indole-5,6-quinone-2-carboxylate is involved in the Eumelanin Biosynthesis Pathway.

PW_C104699

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(3E)-2-oxohex-3-enedioate

(3E)-2-Oxohex-3-enedioate has the chemical formula C6H4O5, and an average molecular weight of 156.094. (3E)-2-Oxohex-3-enedioate is involved in the 2-Amino-3-Carboxymuconate Semialdehyde Degradation Pathway.

PW_C104804

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4-Hydroxycilostazol

4-Hydroxycilostazol has the chemical formula C20H27N5O3, and an average molecular weight of 385.468. 4-Hydroxycilostazol is involved in the Cilostazol Action Pathway.

PW_C104805

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4-cis-Hydroxy cilostazol

4-cis-Hydroxy cilostazol has the chemical formula C20H27N5O3, and an average molecular weight of 385.468. 4-cis-Hydroxy cilostazol is involved in the Cilostazol Action Pathway.

PW_C104806

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3,4-Dehydrocilostazol

3,4-Dehydrocilostazol has the chemical formula C20H25N5O2, and an average molecular weight of 367.453. 3,4-Dehydrocilostazol is involved in the Cilostazol Action Pathway.
Showing 55701 - 55720 of 55723 compounds