Pathways

PathWhiz ID Pathway Meta Data

PW126581

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disease

new

Homo sapiens

PW126580

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disease

nfkb1

Homo sapiens

PW126451

Pw126451 View Pathway
drug action

Zidovudine Action Pathway (New)

Homo sapiens
Zidovudine is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) used in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. When HIV infects a cell, the virus first binds and fuses with the cell, releasing its nucleocapsid containing its RNA and reverse transcriptase into the cytosol of the cell. The reverse transcriptase converts the viral RNA into viral DNA in the cytosol. The viral DNA goes to the nucleus through the nuclear pore complex where it undergoes the process of transcription. The new viral RNA formed from transcription is transported back to the cytosol through the nuclear pore complex and translation occurs to produce viral proteins. These viral proteins are assembled and new HIV viruses bud from the cell. Zidovudine enters the cell via solute carrier family 22 member 6 and is converted into zidovudine monophosphate by thymidine kinase. Thymidylate kinase then converts zidovudine monophosphate into zidovudine diphosphate. Zidovudine diphosphate is metabolized to zidovudine triphosphate via nucleoside diphosphate kinase A. Zidovudine triphosphate is an analog of deoxyguanosine triphosphate (dGTP). Zidovudine diphosphate inhibits the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase by competing with its substrate, dGTP and by incorporation into viral DNA. Zidovudine triphosphate lacks the 3'-OH group which is needed to form the 5′ to 3′ phosphodiester linkage essential for DNA chain elongation, therefore, once Zidovudine triphosphate gets incorporated into DNA, this causes DNA chain termination, preventing the growth of viral DNA. Less viral proteins are therefore produced, and there is a reduction in new viruses being formed. Zidovudine has a high frequency of side effects that limits its use. Side effects of taking zidovudine may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headaches, myalgia, insomnia, bone marrow suppression, peripheral myopathy, elevated liver enzyme, lactic acidosis and hepatotoxicity.

PW126444

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drug action

Tenofovir Action Pathway (New)

Homo sapiens
Tenofovir is a nucleotide analog that has shown to be effective against HIV, herpes simplex virus-2, and hepatitis B virus. When HIV infects a cell, the virus first binds and fuses with the cell, releasing its nucleocapsid containing its RNA and reverse transcriptase into the cytosol of the cell. The reverse transcriptase converts the viral RNA into viral DNA in the cytosol. The viral DNA goes to the nucleus through the nuclear pore complex where it undergoes the process of transcription. The new viral RNA formed from transcription is transported back to the cytosol through the nuclear pore complex and translation occurs to produce viral proteins. These viral proteins are assembled and new HIV viruses bud from the cell. Tenofovir enters the cell via solute carrier family 22 member 8 and is converted into tenofovir monophosphate by adenylate kinase. Nucleoside diphosphate kinase then converts tenofovir monophosphate into tenofovir diphosphate. Tenofovir diphosphate is an analog of deoxyadenosine triphosphate (dATP). Tenofovir diphosphate inhibits the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase by competing with its substrate, dATP and by incorporation into viral DNA. Tenofovir diphosphate lacks the 3'-OH group which is needed to form the 5′ to 3′ phosphodiester linkage essential for DNA chain elongation, therefore, once tenofovir diphosphate gets incorporated into DNA, this causes DNA chain termination, preventing the growth of viral DNA. Less viral proteins are therefore produced, and there is a reduction in new viruses being formed.

PW126442

Pw126442 View Pathway
drug action

Lamivudine Action Pathway (New)

Homo sapiens
Lamivudine is a reverse transcriptase inhibitor used to treat HIV and hepatitis B infections. It is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) that targets HIV infected cells in the body. When HIV infects a cell, the virus first binds and fuses with the cell, releasing its nucleocapsid containing its RNA and reverse transcriptase into the cytosol of the cell. The reverse transcriptase converts the viral RNA into viral DNA in the cytosol. The viral DNA goes to the nucleus through the nuclear pore complex where it undergoes the process of transcription. The new viral RNA formed from transcription is transported back to the cytosol through the nuclear pore complex and translation occurs to produce viral proteins. These viral proteins are assembled and new HIV viruses bud from the cell. Lamivudine enters the cell via solute carrier family 22 member 2 and is converted into lamivudine monophosphate by deoxycytidine kinase. UMP-CMP kinase protein then converts lamivudine monophosphate into lamivudine diphosphate. The lamivudine diphosphate is metabolized to lamivudine triphosphate via nucleoside diphosphate kinase A or phosphoglycerate kinase 1. Limuvudine triphosphate is an analog of deoxycytidine-5'-triphosphate (dCTP). Lamivudine triphosphate inhibits the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase by competing with its substrate, dCTP and by incorporation into viral DNA. Lamivudine triphosphate lacks the 3'-OH group which is needed to form the 5′ to 3′ phosphodiester linkage essential for DNA chain elongation, therefore, once lamivudine triphosphate gets incorporated into DNA, this causes DNA chain termination, preventing the growth of viral DNA. Less viral proteins are therefore produced, and there is a reduction in new viruses being formed. Common side effects from taking lamivudine include headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, weight loss, abdominal pain, fever, cough and nasal signs & symtpoms.

PW126417

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metabolic

Citrate Immunometabolism Pathway

Homo sapiens

PW126414

Pw126414 View Pathway
metabolic

Succinate Immunometabolism Pathway

Homo sapiens

PW126408

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metabolic

Itaconate Immunometabolism Pathway

Homo sapiens

PW126404

Pw126404 View Pathway
signaling

Ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis 1636480163

Cannabis sativa

PW126400

Pw126400 View Pathway
drug action

Manns.

Actinoplanes sp. (strain ATCC 31044 / CBS 674.73 / SE50/110)