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Showing 31 - 40 of 49833 pathways
SMPDB ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins


Pw000048 View Pathway

Phospholipid Biosynthesis

This pathway describes the synthesis of the common phospholipids, including phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol and cardiolipins. Phospholipid synthesis is mediated by two possible mechanisms: (1) A CDP-activated polar head group for attaches to the phosphate of phosphatidic acid or (2) A CDP-activated 1,2-diacylglycerol and an inactivated polar head group. The ER membrane is the primary site of phospholipid synthesis using precursors imported into the ER from the cytosol. To initiate the process, phosphatidic acid is generated by the linkage of two fatty acids associated with coenzyme A (CoA) carriers to glycerol-3-phosphate. This new molecule is inserted into the membrane where a phosphatase converts it into diacylglycerol or alternatively it is formed into phosphatidylinositol before the conversion. If the conversion into diacylglycerol occurs, the molecule has three possible fates depending on the type of polar head group attached: phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, or phosphatidylserine. At their inception, a phospholipid is composed of a saturated fatty acid and unsaturated fatty acid on the C1 and C2 carbon of the glycerol backbone respectively. With the continuous remodelling of the phospholipid bilayer, this fatty acid distribution at these carbons changes. For example, acyl group remodelling changes the presence of acyl groups on the glycerol backbone (which were initially placed there by acyl transferases) and moves it further into the membrane as a consequence of the action of phospholipase A1 (PLA1) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Another modifying group that is usually added are alcohol-containing groups such as serine, ethanol amine, and choline which contain positively-charged nitrogen.


Pw000050 View Pathway

Steroid Biosynthesis

The steroid biosynthesis (or cholesterol biosynthesis) pathway is an anabolic metabolic pathway that produces steroids from simple precursors. It starts with the mevalonate pathway, where acetyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA are the first two building blocks. These compounds are joined together via the enzyme hydroxy-3-methylgutaryl (HMG)-CoA synthase to produce the compound known as hydroxy-3-methylgutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA). This compound is then reduced to mevalonic acid via the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase. It is important to note that HMG-CoA reductase is the protein target of many cholesterol-lowering drugs called statins (PMID: 12602122). The resulting mevalonic acid (or mevalonate) is then phosphorylated by the enzyme known as mevalonate kinase to form mevalonate-5-phosphate, which is then phosphorylated again by phosphomevalonate kinase to form mevolonate-5-pyrophsophate. This pyrophosphorylated compound is subsequently decarboxylated via the enzyme mevolonate-5-pyrophsophate decarboxylase to form isopentylpyrophosphate (IPP). IPP can also be isomerized (via isopentenyl-PP-isomerase) to form dimethylallylpyrophosphate (DMAPP). IPP and DMAPP can both donate isoprene units, which can then be joined together to make farnesyl and geranylgeranyl intermediates. Specifically, three molecules of IPP condense to form farnesyl pyrophosphate through the action of the enzyme known as geranyl transferase. Two molecules of farnesyl pyrophosphate then condense to form a molecule known as squalene by the action of the enzyme known as squalene synthase in the cell’s endoplasmic reticulum. The enzyme oxidosqualene cyclase then cyclizes squalene to form lanosterol. Lanosterol is a tetracyclic triterpenoid, and serves as the framework from which all steroids are derived. 14-Demethylation of lanosterol by a cytochrome P450 enzyme known as CYP51 eventually yields cholesterol. Cholesterol is the central steroid in human biology. It can be obtained from animal fats consumed in the diet or synthesized de novo (as described above). Cholesterol is an essential constituent of lipid bilayer membranes (where it forms cholesterol esters) and is the starting point for the biosynthesis of steroid hormones, bile acids and bile salts, and vitamin D. Steroid hormones are mostly synthesized in the adrenal gland and gonads. They regulate energy metabolism and stress responses (via glucocorticoids such as cortisol), salt balance (mineralocorticoids such as aldosterone), and sexual development and function (via androgens such as testosterone and estrogens such as estradiol). Bile acids and bile salts (such as taurocholate) are mostly synthesized in the liver. They are released into the intestine and function as detergents to solubilize dietary fats. Cholesterol is the main constituent of atheromas. These are the fatty lumps found in the walls of arteries that occur in atherosclerosis and, when ruptured, can cause heart attacks.


Pw000043 View Pathway

Histidine Metabolism

Histidine, an amino acid, plays an important role in the creation of proteins. It is unique as an amino acid as it is needed for nucleotide formation. The biosynthesis of histidine in adults begins with the condensation of ATP and PRPP (phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate) to form n-5-phosphoribosyl 1-pyrophosphate (phosphoribosyl-ATP). It is also worth noting that PRPP is the beginning compound for purine and pyrimidine creation. Subsequent histidine biosynthetic steps (from phosphoribosyl-ATP onwards) are likely to occur in the intestinal microflora. Elimination of the phosphate and the opening of the ring in phosphoribosyl-ATP forms phosphoribosyl-forminino-5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide(phosphoribosyl-forminino-AICAR-phosphate). This is subsequently converted to 5-phosphoribulosyl-forminino-5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide. Cleavage of this compound creates imidazole glycerol phosphate and AICAR (aminoimidazolecarboxamide ribonucleotide) with glutamine being involved as an amino group donor. AICAR is used again through the purine pathway while the imidazole glycerol phosphate is converted to imidazole acetal phosphate. Transamination yields histidinol phosphate which is then turned into histidinol, and then, finally, to histidine. L-histidine is catalyzed by histidine ammonia-lyase into urocanic acid. This acid is then converted to 4-imidazolone-5-propionic acid by urocanate hydratase. 4-imidazolone-5-propionic acid is then converted to formiminoglutamic acid, using the enzyme probable imidazolonepropionase. One last reaction occurs to allow for glutamate metabolism, as formiminoglutamic acid is converted to l-glutamic acid through the use of formimidoyltransferase-cyclodeaminase. Histidine is also a precursor for carnosine biosynthesis(via carnosine synthase), with beta-alanine being the rate limiting precursor. Anserine can be synthesized either from carnosine via carnosine N-methyltransferase or from 1-methylhistidine via carnosine synthase. Inversely, cytosolic non-specific dipeptidase catalyzes the synthesis of 1-methylhistidine from anserine. Histidine is found in meat, seeds, nuts and whole grains. It is a very important amino acid in keeping a pH of 7 in the body, as it acts as a shuttle for protons to maintain a balance of acids and bases in the blood and different tissues.


Pw000163 View Pathway

Tryptophan Metabolism

This pathway depicts the metabolic reactions and pathways associated with tryptophan metabolism in animals. Tryptophan is an essential amino acid. This means that it cannot be synthesized by humans and other mammals and therefore must be part of the diet. Unlike animals, plants and microbes can synthesize tryptophan from shikimic acid or anthranilate. As one of the 20 proteogenic amino acids, tryptophan plays an important role in protein biosynthesis through the action of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase. As shown in this pathway, tryptophan can be linked to the tryptophanyl-tRNA via either the mitochondrial or cytoplasmic tryptophan tRNA ligases. Also shown in this pathway map is the conversion of tryptophan to serotonin (a neurotransmitter). In this process, tryptophan is acted upon by the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase, which produces 5-hydroxytryptophan (5HTP). 5HTP is then converted into serotonin (5-HT) via aromatic amino acid decarboxylase. Serotonin, in turn, can be converted into N-acetyl serotonin (via serotonin-N-acetyltransferase) and then melatonin (a neurohormone), via 5-hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase. The melatonin can be converted into 6-hydroxymelatonin via the action of cytochrome P450s in the endoplasmic reticulum. Serotonin has other fates as well. As depicted in this pathway it can be converted into N-methylserotonin via Indolethylamine-N-methyltransferase (INMT) or it can be converted into formyl-5-hydroxykynurenamine via indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Serotonin may also be converted into 5-methoxyindoleacetate via a series of intermediates including 5-hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. Tryptophan can be converted or broken down into many other compounds as well. It can be converted into tryptamine via the action of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase. The resulting tryptamine can then be converted into indoleacetaldehyde via kynurenine 3-monooxygenase and then into indoleacetic acid via the action of aldehyde dehydrogenase. Tryptophan also leads to the production of a very important compound known as kynurenine. Kynurenine is synthesized via the action of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygnase, which produces N-formylkynurenine. This compound is converted into kynurenine via the enzyme known as kynurenine formamidase (AFMID). Kynurenine has at least 3 fates. First, kynurenine can undergo deamination in a standard transamination reaction yielding kynurenic acid. Secondly, kynurenine can undergo a series of catabolic reactions (involving kynureninase and kynurenine 3-monooxygenase) producing 3-hydroxyanthranilate plus alanine. In this reaction, kynureninase catabolizes the conversion of kynurenine into anthranilic acid while kynurenine—oxoglutarate transaminase (also known as kynurenine aminotransferase or glutamine transaminase K, GTK) catabolizes its conversion into kynurenic acid. The action of kynurenine 3-hydroxylase on kynurenic acid leads to 3-hydroxykynurenine. The oxidation of 3-hydroxyanthranilate converts it into 2-amino-3-carboxymuconic 6-semialdehyde, which has two fates. It can either degrade to form acetoacetate or it can cyclize to form quinolate. Most of the body’s 3-hydroxyanthranilate leads to the production of acetoacetate (a ketone body), which is why tryptophan is also known as a ketogenic amino acid. An important side reaction in the liver involves a non-enzymatic cyclization into quinolate followed by transamination and several rearrangements to yield limited amounts of nicotinic acid, which leads to the production of a small amount of NAD+ and NADP+.


Pw000031 View Pathway

Nucleotide Sugars Metabolism

Nucleotide sugars are defined as any nucleotide in which the distal phosphoric residue of a nucleoside 5'-diphosphate is in glycosidic linkage with a monosaccharide or monosaccharide derivative. There are nine sugar nucleotides and they can be classified depending on the type of the nucleoside forming them: UDP-Glc, UDP-Gal, UDP-GlcNAc, UDP-GlcUA, UDP- Xyl, GDP-Man, GDP-Fuc and CMP-NeuNAc. Turning back now to the pathway in question, namely the nucleotide sugar metabolism pathway, it should be noted that the nucleotide sugars play an important role. Indeed, they are donors of certain important residues of sugar which are vital to glycosylation and by extension tot the production of polysaccharides. This process produces the substrates for glycosyltransferases. These sugars have several additional roles. For example, nucleotide sugars serve a vital purpose as the intermediates in interconversions of nucleotide sugars that result in the creation and activation of certain sugars necessary in the glycosylation reaction in certain organisms. Moreover, the process of glycosylation is attributed mostly (though not entirely) to the endoplasmic reticulum/golgi apparatus. Logically then, due to the important role of nucleotide sugars in glycosylation, a plethora of transporters exist which displace the sugars from their point of production, the cytoplasm, to where they are needed. In the case, the endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus.


Pw000144 View Pathway

Glycerolipid Metabolism

The glycerolipid metabolism pathway describes the synthesis of glycerolipids such as monoacylglycerols (MAGs), diacylglycerols (DAGs), triacylglycerols (TAGs), phosphatidic acids (PAs), and lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs). The process begins with cytoplasmic 3-phosphoglyceric acid (a product of glycolysis). This molecule is dephosphorylated via the enzyme glycerate kinase to produce glyceric acid. Glyceric acid is then transformed to glycerol (via the action of aldehyde dehydrogenase and aldose reductase). The free, cytoplasmic glycerol can then be phosphorylated to glycerol-3-phosphate through the action of glycerol kinase. Glycerol-3-phosphate can then enter the endoplasmic reticulum where glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) may combine various acyl-CoA moieties (which donate acyl groups) to form lysophosphatidic (LPA) or phosphatidic acid (PA). The resulting phosphatidic acids can be dephosphorylated via lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase (also known as phosphatidate phosphatase) to produce diacylglycerols (DAGs). The resulting DAGs can be converted into triacylglycerols (TAGs) via the addition of another acyl group (contributed via acyl-CoA) and the action of 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase. Extracellularly, the triacylglycerols (TAGs) can be converted to monoacylglycerols (MAGs) through the action of hepatic triacylglycerol lipase. In addition to this cytoplasmic route of glycerolipid synthesis, another route via mitochondrial synthesis also exists. This route begins with glycerol-3-phosphate, which can be either derived from dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), a product of glycolysis (usually in the cytoplasm of liver or adipose tissue cells) or from glycerol itself. Glycerol-3-phosphate in the mitochondria is first acylated via acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) through the action of mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase to form lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). Once synthesized, lysophosphatidic acid is then acylated with another molecule of acyl-CoA via the action of 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acetyltransferase to yield phosphatidic acid. Phosphatidic acid is then dephosphorylated to form diacylglycerol. Specifically, diacylglycerol is formed by the action of phosphatidate phosphatase (also known as lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase) on phosphatidic acid coupled with the release of a phosphate. The phosphatase exists as 3 isozymes. Diacylglycerol is a precursor to triacylglycerol (triglyceride), which is formed in the addition of a third fatty acid to the diacylglycerol by the action of diglyceride acyltransferase. Since diacylglycerol is synthesized via phosphatidic acid, it will usually contain a saturated fatty acid at the C-1 position on the glycerol moiety and an unsaturated fatty acid at the C-2 position. When the body uses stored fat as a source of energy, glycerol and fatty acids are released into the bloodstream. Fatty acids, stored as triglycerides in humans, are an important and a particularly rich source of energy. The energy yield from a gram of fatty acids is approximately 9 kcal/g (39 kJ/g), compared to 4 kcal/g (17 kJ/g) for carbohydrates. Since the hydrocarbon portion of fatty acids is hydrophobic, these molecules can be stored in a relatively anhydrous (water-free) environment. Fatty acids can hold more than six times the amount of energy than sugars on a weight basis. In other words, if you relied on sugars or carbohydrates to store energy, then you would need to carry 67.5 lb (31 kg) of glycogen to have the energy equivalent to 10 lb (5 kg) of fat.


Pw000029 View Pathway

Lysine Degradation

The degradation of L-lysine happens in liver and it is consisted of seven reactions. L-Lysine is imported into liver through low affinity cationic amino acid transporter 2 (cationic amino acid transporter 2/SLC7A2). Afterwards, L-lysine is imported into mitochondria via mitochondrial ornithine transporter 2. L-Lysine can also be obtained from biotin metabolism. L-Lysine and oxoglutaric acid will be combined to form saccharopine by facilitation of mitochondrial alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase, and then, mitochondrial alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase will further breaks saccharopine down to allysine and glutamic acid. Allysine will be degraded to form aminoadipic acid through alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase. Oxoadipic acid is formed from catalyzation of mitochondrial kynurenine/alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase on aminoadipic acid. Oxoadipic acid will be further catalyzed to form glutaryl-CoA, and glutaryl-CoA converts to crotonoyl-CoA, and crotonoyl-CoA transformed to 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA. 3-Hydroxybutyryl-CoA will form Acetyl-CoA as the final product through the intermediate compound: acetoacetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA will undergo citric acid cycle metabolism. Carnitine is another key byproduct of lysine metabolism (not shown in this pathway).


Pw000036 View Pathway

Thiamine Metabolism

Thiamine, (Vitamin B1), is a compound found in many different foods such as beans, seafood, meats and yogurt. It is usually maintained by the consumption of whole grains. It is an essential part of energy metabolism. This means that thiamine helps convert carbohydrates into energy. Eating carbohydrates increases the need for this vitamin, as your body can only store about 30mg at a time due to the vitamins short half-life. Thiamine was first synthesized in 1936, which was very helpful in researching its properties in relation to beriberi, a vitamin b1 deficiency. This deficiency has been observed mainly in countries where rice is the staple food. Thiamine metabolism begins in the extracellular space, being transported by a thiamine transporter into the cell. Once in the intracellular space, thiamine is converted into thiamine pyrophosphate through the enzyme thiamin pyrophosphate kinase 1. Thiamine pyrophosphate is then converted into thiamine triphosphate, again using the enzyme thiamin pyrophosphatekinase 1. After this, thiamine triphosphate uses thiamine-triphosphatase to revert to thiamine pyrophosphate, which undergoes a reaction using cancer-related nuceloside-triphosphatase to become thiamine monophosphate. This phosphorylated form is a metabolically active form of thiamine, as are the two other compounds, derivatives of thiamine, mentioned previously. The enzymes used in this pathway both stem from the upper small intestine. Thiamine is passed mainly through urine. It is a water-soluble vitamin, which means it dissolves in water and is carried to different parts of the body but is not stored in the body.


Pw000156 View Pathway

Inositol Phosphate Metabolism

Inositol phosphates are a group of molecules that are important for a number of cellular functions, such as cell growth, apoptosis, cell migration, endocytosis, and cell differentiation. Inositol phsosphates consist of an inositol (a sixfold alcohol of cyclohexane) phosphorylated at one or more positions. There are a number of different inositol phosphates found in mammals, distinguishable by the number and position of the phosphate groups. Inositol phosphate can be formed either as a product of phosphatidylinositol phosphate metabolism or from glucose 6-phosphate via the enzyme inositol-3-phosphate synthase 1. Conversion between the different types of inositol phosphates then occurs via a number of specific inositol phosphate kinases and phosphatases, which add (kinase) or remove (phosphatase) phosphate groups. The differing roles of the numerous inositol phosphates means that their metabolism must be tightly regulated. This is done via the localization and activation/deactivation of the various kinases and phosphatases, which can be found in the cytoplasm, nucleus or endoplasmic reticulum. The unphosphorylated inositol ring can be used to produce phosphoinositides through phosphatidylinositol phosphate metabolism.


Pw000168 View Pathway

Phosphatidylinositol Phosphate Metabolism

Phosphatidylinositol phosphates, or phosphoinositides, are intracellular signaling lipids. Seven different phosphoinositides have been identified in mammals, each distinguished by the number and/or position of the phosphate groups on the inositol ring. The inositol can be mono-, di-, or triphosphorylated, with the remaining phosphoinositides being isomers of these three forms. Phosphoinositides regulate a variety of signal transduction processes, thus playing a number of important roles in the cell, such as actin cytoskeletal reorganization, membrane transport, and cell proliferation. They may also affect protein localization, aggregation, and activity by acting as secondary messengers. The ability of the cell to recognize the different types of phosphoinositides as different cellular signals means that their synthesis and metabolism must be tightly regulated. Synthesis begins with the attachment of an inositol phosphate head group to diacylglycerol via a phospholipase C enzyme, creating a phosphoinositide. Conversion between the different types of phosphoinositides is then done by a number of specific phosphoinositide kinases and phosphatases, which add (kinase) and remove (phosphatase) phosphates from the inositol ring. The specific localization and regulation of the phosphoinositide kinases and phosphatases thus controls the activity of the phosphoinositides. While the phosphoinositides are always located in the membrane, their particular kinases and phosphatases may be found in the cytoplasm or in the membrane of the cell or cell organelles.
Showing 31 - 40 of 49833 pathways