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Showing 48661 - 48670 of 48700 pathways
SMPDB ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins


Pw000707 View Pathway
Drug Action

Troleandomycin Action Pathway

Troleandomycin, sold as Triocetin and Tekmisin, is a macrolide antibiotic drug. It is similar to erythromycin, the first macrolide discovered, as well as azithromycin and clarithromycin, which were formed from chemically modified erythromycin. As with other macrolides, troleandomycin binds to the bacterial ribosome, preventing ribosomal translation from occurring, as well as preventing amino acids from being added to the protein during protein biosynthesis. This prevents the bacteria from being able to produce potentially vital proteins, and means that the bacteria will likely die. Troleandomycin may inhibit some Cytochrome P450 enzymes, leading to averse effects to other drugs. Troleandomycin is used to treat pneumonia and streptococcal infection, but it is not yet FDA approved and is only currently used in Turkey.


Pw000163 View Pathway

Tryptophan Metabolism

This pathway depicts the metabolic reactions and pathways associated with tryptophan metabolism in animals. Tryptophan is an essential amino acid. This means that it cannot be synthesized by humans and other mammals and therefore must be part of the diet. Unlike animals, plants and microbes can synthesize tryptophan from shikimic acid or anthranilate. As one of the 20 proteogenic amino acids, tryptophan plays an important role in protein biosynthesis through the action of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase. As shown in this pathway, tryptophan can be linked to the tryptophanyl-tRNA via either the mitochondrial or cytoplasmic tryptophan tRNA ligases. Also shown in this pathway map is the conversion of tryptophan to serotonin (a neurotransmitter). In this process, tryptophan is acted upon by the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase, which produces 5-hydroxytryptophan (5HTP). 5HTP is then converted into serotonin (5-HT) via aromatic amino acid decarboxylase. Serotonin, in turn, can be converted into N-acetyl serotonin (via serotonin-N-acetyltransferase) and then melatonin (a neurohormone), via 5-hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase. The melatonin can be converted into 6-hydroxymelatonin via the action of cytochrome P450s in the endoplasmic reticulum. Serotonin has other fates as well. As depicted in this pathway it can be converted into N-methylserotonin via Indolethylamine-N-methyltransferase (INMT) or it can be converted into formyl-5-hydroxykynurenamine via indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Serotonin may also be converted into 5-methoxyindoleacetate via a series of intermediates including 5-hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. Tryptophan can be converted or broken down into many other compounds as well. It can be converted into tryptamine via the action of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase. The resulting tryptamine can then be converted into indoleacetaldehyde via kynurenine 3-monooxygenase and then into indoleacetic acid via the action of aldehyde dehydrogenase. Tryptophan also leads to the production of a very important compound known as kynurenine. Kynurenine is synthesized via the action of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygnase, which produces N-formylkynurenine. This compound is converted into kynurenine via the enzyme known as kynurenine formamidase (AFMID). Kynurenine has at least 3 fates. First, kynurenine can undergo deamination in a standard transamination reaction yielding kynurenic acid. Secondly, kynurenine can undergo a series of catabolic reactions (involving kynureninase and kynurenine 3-monooxygenase) producing 3-hydroxyanthranilate plus alanine. In this reaction, kynureninase catabolizes the conversion of kynurenine into anthranilic acid while kynurenine—oxoglutarate transaminase (also known as kynurenine aminotransferase or glutamine transaminase K, GTK) catabolizes its conversion into kynurenic acid. The action of kynurenine 3-hydroxylase on kynurenic acid leads to 3-hydroxykynurenine. The oxidation of 3-hydroxyanthranilate converts it into 2-amino-3-carboxymuconic 6-semialdehyde, which has two fates. It can either degrade to form acetoacetate or it can cyclize to form quinolate. Most of the body’s 3-hydroxyanthranilate leads to the production of acetoacetate (a ketone body), which is why tryptophan is also known as a ketogenic amino acid. An important side reaction in the liver involves a non-enzymatic cyclization into quinolate followed by transamination and several rearrangements to yield limited amounts of nicotinic acid, which leads to the production of a small amount of NAD+ and NADP+.


Pw000473 View Pathway

Tyrosine Hydroxylase Deficiency

Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH) Deficiency is a rare inborn error of metabolism (IEM) and autosomal recessive disorder of catecholamines pathways. The disorder is caused by defects in the Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene which encodes for the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase. This enzyme is part of the production of catecholamines such as dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine are all essential for normal nervous system function. Dopamine transmits signals to help the brain control physical movement and emotional behavior. Norepinephrine and epinephrine are involved in the autonomic nervous system. Mutations in the TH gene result in reduced activity of the tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme. As a result, the body produces less dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine. Symptoms of the disorder include abnormal movements, autonomic dysfunction, and other neurological problems. Treatments can include the administration of levodopa; however patient responses can vary greatly. The frequency of Tyrosine Hydroxylase Deficiency is unknown.


Pw000142 View Pathway

Tyrosine Metabolism

The tyrosine metabolism pathway describes the many ways in which tyrosine is catabolized or transformed to generate a wide variety of biologically important molecules. In particular, tyrosine can be metabolized to produce hormones such as thyroxine and triiodothyronine or it can be metabolized to produce neurotransmitters such as L-DOPA, dopamine, adrenaline, or noradrenaline. Tyrosine can also serve as a precursor of the pigment melanin and for the formation of Coenzyme Q10. Additionally, tyrosine can be catabolized all the way down into fumarate and acetoacetate. This particular pathway for tyrosine degradation starts with an alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent transamination reaction of tyrosine, which is mediated through the enzyme known as tyrosine transaminase. This process generates p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. This aromatic acid is then acted upon by p-hydroxylphenylpyruvate-dioxygenase which generates the compound known as homogentisic acid or homogentisate (2,5-dihydroxyphenyl-1-acetate). In order to split the aromatic ring of homogentisate, a unique dioxygenase enzyme known as homogentisic acid 1,2-dioxygenase is required. Through this enzyme, maleylacetoacetate is created from the homogentisic acid precursor. The accumulation of excess homogentisic acid and its oxide (named alkapton) in the urine of afflicted individuals can lead to a condition known as alkaptonuria. This genetic condition, also known as an inborn error of metabolism or IEM, occurs if there are mutations in the homogentisic acid 1,2-dioxygenase gene. After the breakdown of homogentisate is achieved, maleylacetoacetate is then attacked by the enzyme known as maleylacetoacetate-cis-trans-isomerase, which generates fumarylacetate. This isomerase catalyzes the rotation of the carboxyl group created from the hydroxyl group via oxidation. This cis-trans-isomerase uses glutathione as a coenzyme or cofactor. The resulting product, fumarylacetoacetate, is then split into acetoactate and fumarate via the enzyme known as fumarylacetoacetate-hydrolase through the addition of a water molecule. Through this set of reactions fumarate and acetoacetate (3-ketobutyroate) are liberated. Acetoacetate is a ketone body, which is activated with succinyl-CoA, and thereafter it can be converted into acetyl-CoA, which in turn can be oxidized by the citric acid cycle (also known as the TCA cycle) or used for fatty acid synthesis. Other aspects of tyrosine metabolism include the generation of catecholamines. In this process, the enzyme known as tyrosine hydroxylase (or AAAH or TYH) catalyzes the conversion of tyrosine to L-DOPA. The L-DOPA can then be converted via the enzyme DOPA decarboxylase (DDC) to dopamine. Dopamine can then be converted to 3-methoxytyramine via the action of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). Dopamine can also be converted to norepinephrine (noradrenaline) through the action of the enzyme known as dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH). Norepinephrine can then be converted to epinephrine (adrenaline) through the action of phenyethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT). Catecholamines such as L-DOPA, dopamine and methoxytyramine are produced mainly by the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and by neuronal cells found in the brain. For example, dopamine, which acts as a neurotransmitter, is mostly produced in neuronal cell bodies in the ventral tegmental area and the substantia nigra while epinephrine is produced in neurons in the human brain that express PMNT. Catecholamines typically have a half-life of a few minutes in the blood. They are typically degraded via catechol-O-methyltransferases (COMT) or by deamination via monoamine oxidases (MAO). Another important aspect of tyrosine metabolism includes the production of melanin. Melanin is produced through a mechanism known as melanogenesis, a process that involves the oxidation of tyrosine followed by the polymerization of these oxidation by-products. Melanin pigments are produced in a specialized group of cells known as melanocytes. There are three types of melanin: pheomelanin, eumelanin, and neuromelanin of which eumelanin is the most common. Melanogenesis, especially in the skin, is initiated through the exposure to UV light. Melanin is the primary pigment that determines skin color. Melanin is also found in hair and the pigmented tissue underlying the iris. The first step in the synthesis for both eumelanins and pheomelanins is the conversion of tyrosine to dopaquinone by the enzyme known as tyrosinase. The resulting dopaquinone can combine with cysteine to produce cysteinyldopa, which then polymerizes to form pheomelanin. Dopaquinone can also form lecuodopachrome, which then can be converted to dopachrome (a cyclization product) and this eventually becomes eumelanin. Tyrosine plays a critical role in the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormones are produced and released by the thyroid gland and include triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). These two hormones are responsible for regulating metabolism. Thyroxine was discovered and isolated by Edward Calvin Kendall in 1915. Thyroid hormones are produced by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland through the action of thyroperoxidase, which iodinates reactive tyrosine residues on thyroglobulin. Proteolysis of the thyroglobulin in cellular lysosomes releases the small molecule thyroid hormones. In mammals, tyrosine can be formed from dietary phenylalanine by the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, found in large amounts in the liver. Phenylalanine is considered an essential amino acid, while tyrosine (which can be endogenously synthesized) is not. In plants and most microbes, tyrosine is produced via prephenate, an intermediate that is produced as part of the shikimate pathway.


Pw000120 View Pathway

Tyrosinemia Type 2 (or Richner-Hanhart Syndrome)

Tyrosinemia II also known as Richner-Hanhart syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a mutation in the TAT gene the encodes for tyrosine aminotransferase. A defect in this enzyme causes excess tyrosine to accumulate in the blood and urine, tyrosine crystals to form in the cornea, and increased excretion in the urine of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid, hydroxyphenyllactic acid, and p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid. Symptoms commonly appear in early childhood and include: mental retardation, photophobia (increased sensitivity to light), excessive tearing, eye redness and pain and skin lesions of the palms and soles. The patient is treated with restriction of dietary phenylalanine and tyrosine. Sometimes a tyrosine degradation inhibitor is also used to prevents the formation of fumarylacetoacetate from tyrosine. Trosinemia II is commonly misdiagnosed as herpes simplex keratitis.


Pw000121 View Pathway

Tyrosinemia Type 3 (TYRO3)

Tyrosinemia type 3, one of the three types of tyrosinemia, is a rare disorder with only a few reported cases. Tyrosinemia type 3 results from a defect in the HPD gene which codes for 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase. 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase plays a role in the catabolism of tyrosine by catalyzing the conversion of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate to homogentisate. A defect in this enzyme causes tyrosine and phenylalanine to accumulate in the blood resulting in increased excretion of tyrosine in the urine. Tyrosinemia type 3 symptoms include: seizures, mental retardation and intermittent ataxia (occasional loss of balance and coordination).


Pw000182 View Pathway

Tyrosinemia Type I

Tyrosinemia type I, also known as fumarylacetoacetase or FAH deficiency, is the most severe type of tyrosinemia, a buildup of tyrosine in the body. It is caused by an autosomal recessive mutation in the the FAH gene that encodes for fumarylacetoacetase, an enzyme that is responsible for the last of five steps that are involved in the metabolic breakdown of tyrosine in the liver and kidneys. The lack of this enzyme's function leads to a buildup of 4-fumarylacetoacetic acid as it couldn't be broken down to fumaric acid and acetoacetic acid. This also leads to an increased concentration of maleylacetoacetic acid. This eventually leads to the increased concentration of L-tyrosine in the body. Symptoms of tyrosinemia type I include jaundice and an enlarged liver, kidney dysfunction, as well as a failure to grow, as foods with high protein and amino acids lead to increased symptoms. Additionally, individuals are more at risk for future liver cancer.


Pw000470 View Pathway

Tyrosinemia, Transient, of the Newborn

A transient defect in tyrosine metabolism is a common aminoacidopathy in the premature and full-term human infant. This disorder, termed neonatal tyrosinemia, was first described by Levine and Gordon in 1939. In the intervening years other workers have studied this disorder, and have noted the concurrence of tyrosinemia and tyrosyluria. In a current survey of 15,000 infants, 6 mild tyrosinemia occurred during the first week of life in 10% of full-term infants, and severe tyrosinemia occurred in approximately 30% of premature infants. The enzymatic basis of neonatal tyrosinemia is complex and involves the susceptibility of p-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid oxidase to inhibition in the presence of its substrate, p-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid and derivatives. The inhibition is reversible by removal of excess substrate and by reducing agents such as ascorbic acid, 2, 6-dichiorophenolindophenol, and a number of hydroquinone and phenylenediamine compounds.


Pw000039 View Pathway

Ubiquinone Biosynthesis

Ubiquinone is also known as coenzyme Q10. It is a 1,4-benzoquinone, where Q refers to the quinone chemical group, and 10 refers to the isoprenyl chemical subunits. Ubiquinone is a carrier of hydrogen atoms (protons plus electrons) and functions as an ubiquitous coenzyme in redox reactions, where it is first reduced to the enzyme-bound intermediate radical semiquinone and in a second reduction to ubiquinol (Dihydroquinone; CoQH2). Ubiquinone is not tightly bound or covalently linked to any known protein complex but is very mobile. In eukaryotes ubiquinones were found in the inner mito-chondrial membrane and in other membranes such as the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi vesicles, lysosomes and peroxisomes. The benzoquinone portion of Coenzyme Q10 is synthesized from tyrosine, whereas the isoprene sidechain is synthesized from acetyl-CoA through the mevalonate pathway. The mevalonate pathway is also used for the first steps of cholesterol biosynthesis. The enzyme para-hydroxybenzoate polyprenyltransferase catalyzes the condensation of p-hydroxybenzoate with polyprenyl diphosphate to generate ubiquinone.


Pw064821 View Pathway

Ubiquitin–Proteasome Pathway

The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is the pathway in which molecules, specifically proteins, are broken down into smaller molecules in the cytosol or in the nucleus.This pathway subsequently has effects in many other pathways and processes. This pathway uses 2 distinct steps. The first step is that the protein being broken down is tagged by multiple ubiquitin units attaching to the protein. The second step is that the protein that has been tagged degrades as it is catalyzed by the 26S proteasome. This pathway is important for DNA repair, regulating the amount of proteins, and the creation of antigen-peptide.
Showing 48661 - 48670 of 48700 pathways