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Showing 48701 - 48710 of 48701 pathways
SMPDB ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins


Pw059826 View Pathway

Cardiolipin Biosynthesis CL(i-13:0/i-18:0/a-17:0/a-13:0)

Cardiolipin (CL) is an important component of the inner mitochondrial membrane where it constitutes about 20% of the total lipid composition. It is essential for the optimal function of numerous enzymes that are involved in mitochondrial energy metabolism. (Wikipedia) Cardiolipin biosynthesis occurs mainly in the mitochondria, but there also exists an alternative synthesis route for CDP-diacylglycerol that takes place in the endoplasmic reticulum. This second route may supplement this pathway. All membrane-localized enzymes are coloured dark green in the image. First, dihydroxyacetone phosphate (or glycerone phosphate) from glycolysis is used by the cytosolic enzyme glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [NAD(+)] to synthesize sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. Second, the mitochondrial outer membrane enzyme glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase esterifies an acyl-group to the sn-1 position of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate to form 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate (lysophosphatidic acid or LPA). Third, the enzyme 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase converts LPA into phosphatidic acid (PA or 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate) by esterifying an acyl-group to the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone. PA is then transferred to the inner mitochondrial membrane to continue cardiolipin synthesis. Fourth, magnesium-dependent phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase catalyzes the conversion of PA into CDP-diacylglycerol. Fifth, CDP-diacylglycerol--glycerol-3-phosphate 3-phosphatidyltransferase synthesizes phosphatidylglycerophosphate (PGP). Sixth, phosphatidylglycerophosphatase and protein-tyrosine phosphatase dephosphorylates PGP to form phosphatidylglycerol (PG). Last, cardiolipin synthase catalyzes the synthesis of cardiolipin by transferring a phosphatidyl group from a second CDP-diacylglycerol to PG. It requires a divalent metal cation cofactor. Newly synthesized cardiolipins undergo remodeling, a process carried out by the enzyme tafazzin. A mutated tafazzin gene disrupts this post-synthetic remodeling and causes Barth syndrome (BTHS), an X-linked human disease (PMID: 16973164). BTHS patients seem to lack acyl specificity and consequently, many potential cardiolipin species can exist (PMID: 16226238).
Showing 48701 - 48710 of 48701 pathways