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Showing 49781 - 49790 of 49827 pathways
SMPDB ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins

SMP0124388

Pw125844 View Pathway
Metabolic

Acylcarnitine Henicosanoylcarnitine

Henicosanoylcarnitine is an acylcarnitine. The general role of acylcarnitines is to transport acyl-groups, organic acids and fatty acids, from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria so that they can be broken down to produce energy. As part of this process, henicosanoic acid is first transported into the cell via the long-chain fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1). Once inside the cell it undergoes a reaction to form an acyl-CoA derivative called henicosanoyl-CoA. This reaction is facilitated by the long-chain fatty-acid CoA ligase 1 protein, which adds a CoA moiety to appropriate acyl groups. Many acyl-CoA groups will then further react with other zwitterionic compounds such as carnitine (to form acylcarnitines) and amino acids (to form acyl amides). The carnitine needed to form acylcarnitines inside the cell is transported into the cell by the organic cation/carnitine transporter 2. In forming an acylcarnitine derivative, henicosanoyl-CoA reacts with L-carnitine to form henicosanoylcarnitine. This reaction is catalyzed by carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase. This enzyme resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane. While this reaction takes place, the henicosanoylcarnitine is moved into the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Following the reaction, the newly synthesized acylcarnitine is transported into the mitochondrial matrix by a mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier protein found in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Once in the matrix, henicosanoylcarnitine can react with the carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 2 enzyme found in the mitochondrial inner membrane to once again form henicosanoyl-CoA and L-carnitine. Henicosanoyl-CoA then enters into the mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathway to form aceytl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA can go on to enter the TCA cycle, or it can react with L-carnitine to form L-acetylcarnitine in a reaction catalyzed by Carnitine O-acetyltransferase. This reaction can occur in both directions, and L-acetylcarnitine and CoA can react to form acetyl-CoA and L-carnitine in certain circumstances. Finally, acetyl-CoA in the cytosol can be catalyzed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 to form malonyl-CoA, which inhibits the action of carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 1, thereby preventing henicosanoylcarnitine from forming and thereby preventing it from being transported into the mitochondria.

SMP0124389

Pw125845 View Pathway
Metabolic

Acylcarnitine (8Z,11Z)-Henicosa-8,11-dienoylcarnitine

(8Z,11Z)-Henicosa-8,11-dienoylcarnitine is an acylcarnitine. The general role of acylcarnitines is to transport acyl-groups, organic acids and fatty acids, from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria so that they can be broken down to produce energy. As part of this process, (8Z,11Z)-henicosa-8,11-dienoic acid is first transported into the cell via the long-chain fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1). Once inside the cell it undergoes a reaction to form an acyl-CoA derivative called (8Z,11Z)-henicosa-8,11-dienoyl-CoA. This reaction is facilitated by the long-chain fatty-acid CoA ligase 1 protein, which adds a CoA moiety to appropriate acyl groups. Many acyl-CoA groups will then further react with other zwitterionic compounds such as carnitine (to form acylcarnitines) and amino acids (to form acyl amides). The carnitine needed to form acylcarnitines inside the cell is transported into the cell by the organic cation/carnitine transporter 2. In forming an acylcarnitine derivative, (8Z,11Z)-henicosa-8,11-dienoyl-CoA reacts with L-carnitine to form (8Z,11Z)-henicosa-8,11-dienoylcarnitine. This reaction is catalyzed by carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase. This enzyme resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane. While this reaction takes place, the (8Z,11Z)-henicosa-8,11-dienoylcarnitine is moved into the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Following the reaction, the newly synthesized acylcarnitine is transported into the mitochondrial matrix by a mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier protein found in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Once in the matrix, (8Z,11Z)-henicosa-8,11-dienoylcarnitine can react with the carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 2 enzyme found in the mitochondrial inner membrane to once again form (8Z,11Z)-henicosa-8,11-dienoyl-CoA and L-carnitine. (8Z,11Z)-Henicosa-8,11-dienoyl-CoA then enters into the mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathway to form aceytl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA can go on to enter the TCA cycle, or it can react with L-carnitine to form L-acetylcarnitine in a reaction catalyzed by Carnitine O-acetyltransferase. This reaction can occur in both directions, and L-acetylcarnitine and CoA can react to form acetyl-CoA and L-carnitine in certain circumstances. Finally, acetyl-CoA in the cytosol can be catalyzed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 to form malonyl-CoA, which inhibits the action of carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 1, thereby preventing (8Z,11Z)-henicosa-8,11-dienoylcarnitine from forming and thereby preventing it from being transported into the mitochondria.

SMP0124390

Pw125846 View Pathway
Metabolic

Acylcarnitine (11Z,14Z)-Henicosa-11,14-dienoylcarnitine

(11Z,14Z)-Henicosa-11,14-dienoylcarnitine is an acylcarnitine. The general role of acylcarnitines is to transport acyl-groups, organic acids and fatty acids, from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria so that they can be broken down to produce energy. As part of this process, (11Z,14Z)-henicosa-11,14-dienoic acid is first transported into the cell via the long-chain fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1). Once inside the cell it undergoes a reaction to form an acyl-CoA derivative called (11Z,14Z)-henicosa-11,14-dienoyl-CoA. This reaction is facilitated by the long-chain fatty-acid CoA ligase 1 protein, which adds a CoA moiety to appropriate acyl groups. Many acyl-CoA groups will then further react with other zwitterionic compounds such as carnitine (to form acylcarnitines) and amino acids (to form acyl amides). The carnitine needed to form acylcarnitines inside the cell is transported into the cell by the organic cation/carnitine transporter 2. In forming an acylcarnitine derivative, (11Z,14Z)-henicosa-11,14-dienoyl-CoA reacts with L-carnitine to form (11Z,14Z)-henicosa-11,14-dienoylcarnitine. This reaction is catalyzed by carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase. This enzyme resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane. While this reaction takes place, the (11Z,14Z)-henicosa-11,14-dienoylcarnitine is moved into the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Following the reaction, the newly synthesized acylcarnitine is transported into the mitochondrial matrix by a mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier protein found in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Once in the matrix, (11Z,14Z)-henicosa-11,14-dienoylcarnitine can react with the carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 2 enzyme found in the mitochondrial inner membrane to once again form (11Z,14Z)-henicosa-11,14-dienoyl-CoA and L-carnitine. (11Z,14Z)-Henicosa-11,14-dienoyl-CoA then enters into the mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathway to form aceytl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA can go on to enter the TCA cycle, or it can react with L-carnitine to form L-acetylcarnitine in a reaction catalyzed by Carnitine O-acetyltransferase. This reaction can occur in both directions, and L-acetylcarnitine and CoA can react to form acetyl-CoA and L-carnitine in certain circumstances. Finally, acetyl-CoA in the cytosol can be catalyzed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 to form malonyl-CoA, which inhibits the action of carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 1, thereby preventing (11Z,14Z)-henicosa-11,14-dienoylcarnitine from forming and thereby preventing it from being transported into the mitochondria.

SMP0124391

Pw125847 View Pathway
Metabolic

Acylcarnitine (5Z,14Z,17Z)-Henicosa-5,14,17-trienoylcarnitine

(5Z,14Z,17Z)-Henicosa-5,14,17-trienoylcarnitine is an acylcarnitine. The general role of acylcarnitines is to transport acyl-groups, organic acids and fatty acids, from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria so that they can be broken down to produce energy. As part of this process, (5Z,14Z,17Z)-henicosa-5,14,17-trienoic acid is first transported into the cell via the long-chain fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1). Once inside the cell it undergoes a reaction to form an acyl-CoA derivative called (5Z,14Z,17Z)-henicosa-5,14,17-trienoyl-CoA. This reaction is facilitated by the long-chain fatty-acid CoA ligase 1 protein, which adds a CoA moiety to appropriate acyl groups. Many acyl-CoA groups will then further react with other zwitterionic compounds such as carnitine (to form acylcarnitines) and amino acids (to form acyl amides). The carnitine needed to form acylcarnitines inside the cell is transported into the cell by the organic cation/carnitine transporter 2. In forming an acylcarnitine derivative, (5Z,14Z,17Z)-henicosa-5,14,17-trienoyl-CoA reacts with L-carnitine to form (5Z,14Z,17Z)-henicosa-5,14,17-trienoylcarnitine. This reaction is catalyzed by carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase. This enzyme resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane. While this reaction takes place, the (5Z,14Z,17Z)-henicosa-5,14,17-trienoylcarnitine is moved into the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Following the reaction, the newly synthesized acylcarnitine is transported into the mitochondrial matrix by a mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier protein found in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Once in the matrix, (5Z,14Z,17Z)-henicosa-5,14,17-trienoylcarnitine can react with the carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 2 enzyme found in the mitochondrial inner membrane to once again form (5Z,14Z,17Z)-henicosa-5,14,17-trienoyl-CoA and L-carnitine. (5Z,14Z,17Z)-Henicosa-5,14,17-trienoyl-CoA then enters into the mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathway to form aceytl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA can go on to enter the TCA cycle, or it can react with L-carnitine to form L-acetylcarnitine in a reaction catalyzed by Carnitine O-acetyltransferase. This reaction can occur in both directions, and L-acetylcarnitine and CoA can react to form acetyl-CoA and L-carnitine in certain circumstances. Finally, acetyl-CoA in the cytosol can be catalyzed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 to form malonyl-CoA, which inhibits the action of carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 1, thereby preventing (5Z,14Z,17Z)-henicosa-5,14,17-trienoylcarnitine from forming and thereby preventing it from being transported into the mitochondria.

SMP0124392

Pw125848 View Pathway
Metabolic

Acylcarnitine 2-Hydroxydocosanoylcarnitine

2-Hydroxydocosanoylcarnitine is an acylcarnitine. The general role of acylcarnitines is to transport acyl-groups, organic acids and fatty acids, from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria so that they can be broken down to produce energy. As part of this process, 2-hydroxydocosanoic acid is first transported into the cell via the long-chain fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1). Once inside the cell it undergoes a reaction to form an acyl-CoA derivative called 2-hydroxydocosanoyl-CoA. This reaction is facilitated by the long-chain fatty-acid CoA ligase 1 protein, which adds a CoA moiety to appropriate acyl groups. Many acyl-CoA groups will then further react with other zwitterionic compounds such as carnitine (to form acylcarnitines) and amino acids (to form acyl amides). The carnitine needed to form acylcarnitines inside the cell is transported into the cell by the organic cation/carnitine transporter 2. In forming an acylcarnitine derivative, 2-hydroxydocosanoyl-CoA reacts with L-carnitine to form 2-hydroxydocosanoylcarnitine. This reaction is catalyzed by carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase. This enzyme resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane. While this reaction takes place, the 2-hydroxydocosanoylcarnitine is moved into the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Following the reaction, the newly synthesized acylcarnitine is transported into the mitochondrial matrix by a mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier protein found in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Once in the matrix, 2-hydroxydocosanoylcarnitine can react with the carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 2 enzyme found in the mitochondrial inner membrane to once again form 2-hydroxydocosanoyl-CoA and L-carnitine. 2-Hydroxydocosanoyl-CoA then enters into the mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathway to form aceytl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA can go on to enter the TCA cycle, or it can react with L-carnitine to form L-acetylcarnitine in a reaction catalyzed by Carnitine O-acetyltransferase. This reaction can occur in both directions, and L-acetylcarnitine and CoA can react to form acetyl-CoA and L-carnitine in certain circumstances. Finally, acetyl-CoA in the cytosol can be catalyzed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 to form malonyl-CoA, which inhibits the action of carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 1, thereby preventing 2-hydroxydocosanoylcarnitine from forming and thereby preventing it from being transported into the mitochondria.

SMP0124393

Pw125849 View Pathway
Metabolic

Acylcarnitine (13Z)-docos-13-enoylcarnitine

(13Z)-docos-13-enoylcarnitine is an acylcarnitine. The general role of acylcarnitines is to transport acyl-groups, organic acids and fatty acids, from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria so that they can be broken down to produce energy. As part of this process, (13Z)-docos-13-enoic acid is first transported into the cell via the long-chain fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1). Once inside the cell it undergoes a reaction to form an acyl-CoA derivative called (13Z)-docos-13-enoyl-CoA. This reaction is facilitated by the long-chain fatty-acid CoA ligase 1 protein, which adds a CoA moiety to appropriate acyl groups. Many acyl-CoA groups will then further react with other zwitterionic compounds such as carnitine (to form acylcarnitines) and amino acids (to form acyl amides). The carnitine needed to form acylcarnitines inside the cell is transported into the cell by the organic cation/carnitine transporter 2. In forming an acylcarnitine derivative, (13Z)-docos-13-enoyl-CoA reacts with L-carnitine to form (13Z)-docos-13-enoylcarnitine. This reaction is catalyzed by carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase. This enzyme resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane. While this reaction takes place, the (13Z)-docos-13-enoylcarnitine is moved into the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Following the reaction, the newly synthesized acylcarnitine is transported into the mitochondrial matrix by a mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier protein found in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Once in the matrix, (13Z)-docos-13-enoylcarnitine can react with the carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 2 enzyme found in the mitochondrial inner membrane to once again form (13Z)-docos-13-enoyl-CoA and L-carnitine. (13Z)-docos-13-enoyl-CoA then enters into the mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathway to form aceytl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA can go on to enter the TCA cycle, or it can react with L-carnitine to form L-acetylcarnitine in a reaction catalyzed by Carnitine O-acetyltransferase. This reaction can occur in both directions, and L-acetylcarnitine and CoA can react to form acetyl-CoA and L-carnitine in certain circumstances. Finally, acetyl-CoA in the cytosol can be catalyzed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 to form malonyl-CoA, which inhibits the action of carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 1, thereby preventing (13Z)-docos-13-enoylcarnitine from forming and thereby preventing it from being transported into the mitochondria.

SMP0124394

Pw125850 View Pathway
Metabolic

Acylcarnitine (11Z)-docos-11-enoylcarnitine

(11Z)-docos-11-enoylcarnitine is an acylcarnitine. The general role of acylcarnitines is to transport acyl-groups, organic acids and fatty acids, from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria so that they can be broken down to produce energy. As part of this process, (11Z)-docos-11-enoic acid is first transported into the cell via the long-chain fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1). Once inside the cell it undergoes a reaction to form an acyl-CoA derivative called (11Z)-docos-11-enoyl-CoA. This reaction is facilitated by the long-chain fatty-acid CoA ligase 1 protein, which adds a CoA moiety to appropriate acyl groups. Many acyl-CoA groups will then further react with other zwitterionic compounds such as carnitine (to form acylcarnitines) and amino acids (to form acyl amides). The carnitine needed to form acylcarnitines inside the cell is transported into the cell by the organic cation/carnitine transporter 2. In forming an acylcarnitine derivative, (11Z)-docos-11-enoyl-CoA reacts with L-carnitine to form (11Z)-docos-11-enoylcarnitine. This reaction is catalyzed by carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase. This enzyme resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane. While this reaction takes place, the (11Z)-docos-11-enoylcarnitine is moved into the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Following the reaction, the newly synthesized acylcarnitine is transported into the mitochondrial matrix by a mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier protein found in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Once in the matrix, (11Z)-docos-11-enoylcarnitine can react with the carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 2 enzyme found in the mitochondrial inner membrane to once again form (11Z)-docos-11-enoyl-CoA and L-carnitine. (11Z)-docos-11-enoyl-CoA then enters into the mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathway to form aceytl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA can go on to enter the TCA cycle, or it can react with L-carnitine to form L-acetylcarnitine in a reaction catalyzed by Carnitine O-acetyltransferase. This reaction can occur in both directions, and L-acetylcarnitine and CoA can react to form acetyl-CoA and L-carnitine in certain circumstances. Finally, acetyl-CoA in the cytosol can be catalyzed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 to form malonyl-CoA, which inhibits the action of carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 1, thereby preventing (11Z)-docos-11-enoylcarnitine from forming and thereby preventing it from being transported into the mitochondria.

SMP0124395

Pw125851 View Pathway
Metabolic

Acylcarnitine (16Z)-14-Hydroxydocos-16-enoylcarnitine

(16Z)-14-Hydroxydocos-16-enoylcarnitine is an acylcarnitine. The general role of acylcarnitines is to transport acyl-groups, organic acids and fatty acids, from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria so that they can be broken down to produce energy. As part of this process, (16Z)-14-hydroxydocos-16-enoic acid is first transported into the cell via the long-chain fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1). Once inside the cell it undergoes a reaction to form an acyl-CoA derivative called (16Z)-14-hydroxydocos-16-enoyl-CoA. This reaction is facilitated by the long-chain fatty-acid CoA ligase 1 protein, which adds a CoA moiety to appropriate acyl groups. Many acyl-CoA groups will then further react with other zwitterionic compounds such as carnitine (to form acylcarnitines) and amino acids (to form acyl amides). The carnitine needed to form acylcarnitines inside the cell is transported into the cell by the organic cation/carnitine transporter 2. In forming an acylcarnitine derivative, (16Z)-14-hydroxydocos-16-enoyl-CoA reacts with L-carnitine to form (16Z)-14-hydroxydocos-16-enoylcarnitine. This reaction is catalyzed by carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase. This enzyme resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane. While this reaction takes place, the (16Z)-14-hydroxydocos-16-enoylcarnitine is moved into the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Following the reaction, the newly synthesized acylcarnitine is transported into the mitochondrial matrix by a mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier protein found in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Once in the matrix, (16Z)-14-hydroxydocos-16-enoylcarnitine can react with the carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 2 enzyme found in the mitochondrial inner membrane to once again form (16Z)-14-hydroxydocos-16-enoyl-CoA and L-carnitine. (16Z)-14-Hydroxydocos-16-enoyl-CoA then enters into the mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathway to form aceytl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA can go on to enter the TCA cycle, or it can react with L-carnitine to form L-acetylcarnitine in a reaction catalyzed by Carnitine O-acetyltransferase. This reaction can occur in both directions, and L-acetylcarnitine and CoA can react to form acetyl-CoA and L-carnitine in certain circumstances. Finally, acetyl-CoA in the cytosol can be catalyzed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 to form malonyl-CoA, which inhibits the action of carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 1, thereby preventing (16Z)-14-hydroxydocos-16-enoylcarnitine from forming and thereby preventing it from being transported into the mitochondria.

SMP0124396

Pw125852 View Pathway
Metabolic

Acylcarnitine (13Z,16Z)-3-Hydroxydocosa-13,16-dienoylcarnitine

(13Z,16Z)-3-Hydroxydocosa-13,16-dienoylcarnitine is an acylcarnitine. The general role of acylcarnitines is to transport acyl-groups, organic acids and fatty acids, from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria so that they can be broken down to produce energy. As part of this process, (13Z,16Z)-3-hydroxydocosa-13,16-dienoic acid is first transported into the cell via the long-chain fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1). Once inside the cell it undergoes a reaction to form an acyl-CoA derivative called (13Z,16Z)-3-hydroxydocosa-13,16-dienoyl-CoA. This reaction is facilitated by the long-chain fatty-acid CoA ligase 1 protein, which adds a CoA moiety to appropriate acyl groups. Many acyl-CoA groups will then further react with other zwitterionic compounds such as carnitine (to form acylcarnitines) and amino acids (to form acyl amides). The carnitine needed to form acylcarnitines inside the cell is transported into the cell by the organic cation/carnitine transporter 2. In forming an acylcarnitine derivative, (13Z,16Z)-3-hydroxydocosa-13,16-dienoyl-CoA reacts with L-carnitine to form (13Z,16Z)-3-hydroxydocosa-13,16-dienoylcarnitine. This reaction is catalyzed by carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase. This enzyme resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane. While this reaction takes place, the (13Z,16Z)-3-hydroxydocosa-13,16-dienoylcarnitine is moved into the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Following the reaction, the newly synthesized acylcarnitine is transported into the mitochondrial matrix by a mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier protein found in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Once in the matrix, (13Z,16Z)-3-hydroxydocosa-13,16-dienoylcarnitine can react with the carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 2 enzyme found in the mitochondrial inner membrane to once again form (13Z,16Z)-3-hydroxydocosa-13,16-dienoyl-CoA and L-carnitine. (13Z,16Z)-3-Hydroxydocosa-13,16-dienoyl-CoA then enters into the mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathway to form aceytl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA can go on to enter the TCA cycle, or it can react with L-carnitine to form L-acetylcarnitine in a reaction catalyzed by Carnitine O-acetyltransferase. This reaction can occur in both directions, and L-acetylcarnitine and CoA can react to form acetyl-CoA and L-carnitine in certain circumstances. Finally, acetyl-CoA in the cytosol can be catalyzed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 to form malonyl-CoA, which inhibits the action of carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 1, thereby preventing (13Z,16Z)-3-hydroxydocosa-13,16-dienoylcarnitine from forming and thereby preventing it from being transported into the mitochondria.

SMP0124397

Pw125853 View Pathway
Metabolic

Acylcarnitine (13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosa-13,16,19-trienoylcarnitine

(13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosa-13,16,19-trienoylcarnitine is an acylcarnitine. The general role of acylcarnitines is to transport acyl-groups, organic acids and fatty acids, from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria so that they can be broken down to produce energy. As part of this process, (13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosa-13,16,19-trienoic acid is first transported into the cell via the long-chain fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1). Once inside the cell it undergoes a reaction to form an acyl-CoA derivative called (13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosa-13,16,19-trienoyl-CoA. This reaction is facilitated by the long-chain fatty-acid CoA ligase 1 protein, which adds a CoA moiety to appropriate acyl groups. Many acyl-CoA groups will then further react with other zwitterionic compounds such as carnitine (to form acylcarnitines) and amino acids (to form acyl amides). The carnitine needed to form acylcarnitines inside the cell is transported into the cell by the organic cation/carnitine transporter 2. In forming an acylcarnitine derivative, (13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosa-13,16,19-trienoyl-CoA reacts with L-carnitine to form (13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosa-13,16,19-trienoylcarnitine. This reaction is catalyzed by carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase. This enzyme resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane. While this reaction takes place, the (13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosa-13,16,19-trienoylcarnitine is moved into the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Following the reaction, the newly synthesized acylcarnitine is transported into the mitochondrial matrix by a mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier protein found in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Once in the matrix, (13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosa-13,16,19-trienoylcarnitine can react with the carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 2 enzyme found in the mitochondrial inner membrane to once again form (13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosa-13,16,19-trienoyl-CoA and L-carnitine. (13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosa-13,16,19-trienoyl-CoA then enters into the mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathway to form aceytl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA can go on to enter the TCA cycle, or it can react with L-carnitine to form L-acetylcarnitine in a reaction catalyzed by Carnitine O-acetyltransferase. This reaction can occur in both directions, and L-acetylcarnitine and CoA can react to form acetyl-CoA and L-carnitine in certain circumstances. Finally, acetyl-CoA in the cytosol can be catalyzed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 to form malonyl-CoA, which inhibits the action of carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 1, thereby preventing (13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosa-13,16,19-trienoylcarnitine from forming and thereby preventing it from being transported into the mitochondria.
Showing 49781 - 49790 of 49827 pathways