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Showing 41 - 50 of 49827 pathways
SMPDB ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins


Pw000168 View Pathway

Phosphatidylinositol Phosphate Metabolism

Phosphatidylinositol phosphates, or phosphoinositides, are intracellular signaling lipids. Seven different phosphoinositides have been identified in mammals, each distinguished by the number and/or position of the phosphate groups on the inositol ring. The inositol can be mono-, di-, or triphosphorylated, with the remaining phosphoinositides being isomers of these three forms. Phosphoinositides regulate a variety of signal transduction processes, thus playing a number of important roles in the cell, such as actin cytoskeletal reorganization, membrane transport, and cell proliferation. They may also affect protein localization, aggregation, and activity by acting as secondary messengers. The ability of the cell to recognize the different types of phosphoinositides as different cellular signals means that their synthesis and metabolism must be tightly regulated. Synthesis begins with the attachment of an inositol phosphate head group to diacylglycerol via a phospholipase C enzyme, creating a phosphoinositide. Conversion between the different types of phosphoinositides is then done by a number of specific phosphoinositide kinases and phosphatases, which add (kinase) and remove (phosphatase) phosphates from the inositol ring. The specific localization and regulation of the phosphoinositide kinases and phosphatases thus controls the activity of the phosphoinositides. While the phosphoinositides are always located in the membrane, their particular kinases and phosphatases may be found in the cytoplasm or in the membrane of the cell or cell organelles.


Pw000170 View Pathway

Plasmalogen Synthesis

Plasmalogens are a class of phospholipids found in animals. Plasmalogens are thought to influence membrane dynamics and fatty acid levels, while also having roles in intracellular signalling and as antioxidants. Plasmalogens consist of a glycerol backbone with an vinyl-ether-linked alkyl chain at the sn-1 position, an ester-linked long-chain fatty acid at the sn-2 position, and a head group attached to the sn-3 position through a phosphodiester linkage. It is the vinyl-ether-linkage that separates plasmalogens from other phospholipids. Plasmalogen biosynthesis begins in the peroxisomes, where the integral membrane protein dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase (DHAPAT) catalyzes the esterification of the free hydroxyl group of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) with a molecule any of long chain acyl CoA. Next, alkyl-DHAP synthase, a peroxisomal enzyme associated with DHAPAT, replaces the fatty acid on the DHAP with a long chain fatty alcohol. The third step of plasmalogen biosynthesis is catalyzed by the enzyme acyl/alkyl-DHAP reductase, which is found in the membrane of both the peroxisome and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Acyl/alkyl-DHAP reductase uses NADPH as a cofactor to reduce the ketone of the 1-alkyl-DHAP using a classical hydride transfer mechanism. The remainder of plasmalogen synthesis occurs using enzymes in the ER. Lysophosphatidate acyltransferases (LPA-ATs) transfer the acyl component of a polyunsaturated acyl-CoA to the the 1-alkyl-DHAP, creating a 1-alkyl-2-acylglycerol 3-phosphate. The phosphate is then removed by lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase I (PAP-I), and the head group is attached by a choline/ethanolaminephosphotransferase. The majority of plasmalogens have either ethanolamine or choline as a headgroup, although a small amount of serine and inositol-linked ether-phospholipids can also be found. In the final step, the vinyl-ether linkage is created by plasmanylethanolamine desaturase, which catalyzes the formation of a double bond in the alkyl chain of the plasmalogen.


Pw122268 View Pathway

Kidney Function- Proximal Convoluted Tubule

The proximal convoluted tubule is part of the nephron between the Bowman's capsule and the loop of Henle. The proximal convoluted tubule functions to reabsorb sodium, water, and other ions. Sodium and bicarbonate (hydrogen carbonate) are transported by a co-transporter that is responsible for the majority of sodium reabsorption. The bicarbonate, along with hydrogen, are exchanged across the basal and apical membranes, respectively, to effectively regulate the pH of the filtrate. In addition, chloride ions are not normally reabsorbed in large amounts at the proximal tubule compared to other parts of the nephron. However, the reabsorption of chloride, as well as potassium, increases as the amount of water reabsorption increases due to solvent drag (also known as bulk transport). This occurrence explains solute movement secondary to water flow. All the cation and anion transport creates a gradient favourable for ion and water reabsorption, leading to an increase in blood pressure.


Pw000001 View Pathway

Alanine Metabolism

Alanine (L-Alanine) is an α-amino acid that is used for protein biosynthesis. Approximately 8% of human proteins have alanine in their structures. The reductive lamination of pyruvate is effected by alanine transaminase. L-Alanine can be converted to pyruvic acid by alanine aminotransferase 1 reversibly coupled with interconversion of oxoglutaric acid and L-glutamic acid. L-Alanine can also be produced by alanine-glyoxylate transaminase with coupled interconversion of glyoxylate and glycine. L-Alanine will be coupled with alanyl tRNA by alanyl-tRNA synthetase to perform protein biosynthesis. Alanine can also be used to provide energy under fasting conditions. There are two pathways that can facilitate this: (1) alanine is converted to pyruvate to synthesize glucose via the gluconeogenesis pathway in liver tissue or (2) alanine converted into pyruvate moves into the TCA cycle to be oxidized in other tissues.


Pw000145 View Pathway

Bile Acid Biosynthesis

A bile acids life begins as cholesterol is catabolized, as bile acid is a derivative of cholesterol. This pathway occurs in the liver, beginning with cholesterol being converted to 7a-hydroxycholesterol through the enzyme cholesterol-7-alpha-monooxygenase, after being transported into the liver cell. 7a-hydroxycholesterol then becomes 7a-hydroxy-cholestene-3-one, which is made possible by the enzyme 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 7. 7a-hydroxy-cholestene-3-one then is used in two different chains of reactions. The first, continuing in the liver, uses the enzyme 3-oxo-5-beta-steroid-4-deydrogenase to become 7a-hydroxy-5b-cholestan-3-one. After that, aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C4 is used to create 3a,7a-dihydroxy-5b-cholestane. In the mitochondria of the cell, sterol 26-hydroxylase converts 3a,7a-dihydroxy-5b-cholestane to 3a,7a,26-trihydroxy-5b-cholestane, which is then converted to 3a,7a-dihydroxy-5b-cholestan-26-al by the same enzyme used in the previous reaction. This enzyme is used another time, to create 3a,7a-dihydroxycoprostanic acid. Then, bile acyl-CoA synthetase teams up with 3a,7a-dihydroxycoprostanic acid to create 3a,7a-dihydroxy-5b-cholestanoyl-CoA. 3a,7a-dihydroxy-5b-cholestanoyl-CoA remains intact while alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase moves it along through the peroxisome. Peroxisomal acyl coenzyme A oxidase 2 converts 3a,7a-dihydroxy-5b-cholestanoyl-CoA into 3a,7a-dihydoxy-5b-cholest-24-enoyl-CoA. With the help of water, peroxisomal multifunctional enzyme type 2 turns 3a,7a-dihydoxy-5b-cholest-24-enoyl-CoA into 3a,7a,24-trihydoxy-5b-cholestanoyl-CoA. This compound then uses peroxisomal multifunctional enzyme type 2 to create chenodeoxycholoyl-CoA. From there, propionyl-CoA and chenodeoxycholoyl-CoA join forces and enlist the help of non-specific lipid transfer protein to further chenodeoxycholoyl-CoAâ€TMs journey in the peroxisome. It is then transported back into intracellular space, where after its used in 3 different reactions, its derivatives interact with intestinal microflora in the extracellular space to become lithocholyltaurine, lithocholic acid glycine conjugate, and lithocholic acid. Revisiting 7a-hydroxy-cholestene-3-one, the second chain of reactions it is involved in follows a similar path as the first, moving through the mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and peroxisome until choloyl-CoA is formed, which then is used in three reactions so that its derivatives may leave the cell to interact with intestinal microflora and become taurodeoxycholic acid, deoxycholic acid glycine conjugate and deoxycholic acid. There are two more important components of this pathway, both depicting the breakdown of cholesterol into bile acid. These components of the pathway occur in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, although 2 enzymes, 25-hydroxycholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase and sterol 26 hydroxylase, are found in the mitochondria. Bile acids play a very important part in the digestion of foods, and are responsible for the absorption of water soluble vitamins in the small intestine. Bile acids also help absorb fats into the small intestine, a crucial part of any vertebrates diet.


Pw000140 View Pathway

Pterine Biosynthesis

Folates are very important cofactors that provide support for many biosynthetic reactions. The reactions depicted in this pathway include reactions that are paired with transports, within the cell, travelling intracellularly, which allows folate to be absorbed by cells, as well as the synthesis of pterines, which are used in folate synthesis. Two branches are depicted: Pterin synthesis and Folate biosynthesis. In pterin synthesis, GTP is the precursor for pterin biosynthesis. In the first reaction, GTP cyclohydrolase acts to create formamidopyrimidine nucleoside triphosphate from guanosine triphosphate, which is provided from the purine metabolism pathway. Formamidopyrimidine nucleoside triphosphate then uses GTP cyclohydrolase again to create 2,5-diaminopyrimidine nucleoside triphosphate. GTP cyclohydrolase then works with 2,5-diaminopyrimidine nucleoside triphosphate to produce 2,3-diamino-6-(5’-triphosphoryl-3’,4’-trihydroxy-2’-oxopentyl)-amino-4-oxopyrimidine, which is then converted by GTP cyclohydrolase to dihydroneopterin triphosphate. Dihydroneopterin is then transported to the mitochondria and subsequently catalyzed into dyspropterin, which then exits the mitochondria to continue pterin biosynthesis. Once having been transported from the mitochondria, dyspropterin uses sepiapterin reductase, aldose reductase and carbonyl reductase [NADPH] 1 to create 6-lactoyltetrahydropterin. This compound then undergoes 2 reactions, the first being sepiapterin reductase converting 6-lactoyltetrahydropterin into tetrahydrobiopterin, the second being 6-lactoyltetrahydropterin being converted to sepiapterin. Both branches of pterin reactions then respectively end in the creation of neopterin and dihydrobiopterin.


Pw000164 View Pathway

Retinol Metabolism

Retinol is part of the vitamin A family, and is known as vitamin A1, and in a dietary context it is a type of preformed vitamin A. As with other preformed vitamin A's, it can be obtained from animal sources, with the highest concentrations coming from animal liver, with other sources being fish and dairy products. Other forms of vitamin A include retinal, its aldehyde form, retinoic acid, its acid form, and reinyl ester, its ester form. Additionally, herbivores and omnivores can obtain provitamin A from things such as alpha-, beta- and gamma-carotene, which can be converted to retinol as needed by the body. Retinol can be used in the body to form retinyl ester via diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 and acyl-CoA wax akcohol acyltransferase 1 which both use acetyl-CoA as a reactant and produce CoA in addition to the retinyl ester. IT can also be produced by lecithin retinol acyltransferase, which uses a phosphatidylcholine molecule, and produces glycerophosphocholine. All of these reactions take place in the endoplasmic reticulum. Retinyl ester can also be converted back to retinol by patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 4 as the enzyme in a reaction that also converts a diacylglycerol to a triacylglycerol. Alternately, retinyl ester can interact with retinoid isomerohydrolase to form 11-cis-retinol. 11-cis-retinol can be converted to retinyl palmitate by either diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 or acyl-CoA wax alcohol acyltransferase 1 in the endoplasmic reticulum, which both add the acetyl group onto 11-cis-retinol, forming CoA as a side product. Alternatively, retinyl palmitate can be formed by lecithin retinol acyltransferase, which takes a molecule of phosphatidylcholine, and produces glycerophosphocholine in addition to the retinyl palmitate. Rhodopsin, a photosensitive protein found in the retina, can be converted to bathorhodopsin, which has previously been known as prelumirhodopsin. This conversion is caused by the absorption of light into the retinal portion of the protein complex, which then isomerizes, forcing the protein to change shape to accomodate this. Bathorhodopsin almost immediately converts to lumirhodopsin, which then converts to metarhodopsin, and at this point, the retinal is in its all-trans configuration. All-trans retinal can also be formed from 11-cis-retinaldehyde, also known as 11-cis-retinal, via dehydrogenase/reductase SDR family member 4 or retinol dehydrogenase 12 in the cell, as well as retinol dehydrogenases 8 and 16, short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase 3 or dehydrogenase/reductase SRD family member 9 in the endoplasmic reticulum. Two molecules of retinal can also be formed from beta-carotene, after its interaction with betabeta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase, or from retinol via retinol dehydrogenase 11 in the endoplasmic reticulum. Additionally, 11-cis-retinaldehyde can reversibly form all-trans retinal via interaction with alcohol dehydrogenase 1A. 11-cis-retinaldehyde is also in the conformation found in rhodopsin, and can be used to create more rhodopsin complexes. 11-cis-retinaldehyde can also be converted to 11-cis-retinol by retinol dehydrogenase in the endoplasmic reticulum. Retinol can also isomerize and form 9-cis-retinol, which can then be reversibly oxidized to form 9-cis-retinal by interacting with either retinol dehydrogenase 11 or dehydrogenase/reductase SDR family member 4. 9-cis-retinal can then be further oxidized to 9-cis-retinoic acid by retinal dehydrogenase 1 or 2. 9-cis-retinoic acid can also be formed from the isomerization of all-trans retinoic acid, which in turn is formed by the oxidation of retinol by either of retinal dehydrogenase 1 or 2. All-trans retinoic acid can also be glucuronidated to form retinoyl b-glucuronide, in a reaction catalyzed by a multiprotein chaperone complex including UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1 in the endoplasmic reticulum. Finally, in the endoplasmic reticulum, all-trans-retinoic acid can undergo epoxidation to form all-trans-5,6-epoxyretinoic acid by interaction with a complex of cytochrome P450 proteins, or hydroxylated to either 4-hydroxyretinoic acid or all-trans-18-hydroxyretinoic acid by cytochrome P450 26A1. In one last reqction, 4-hydroxyretinoic acid can be oxidized once again by cytochrome P450 26A1 to form 4-oxo-retinoic acid.


Pw000056 View Pathway

Methionine Metabolism

Methionine metabolism is a process that is necessary for humans. Methionine metabolism in mammals happens within two pathways, a methionine cycle and a transsulfuration sequence. These pathways have three common reactions with both pathways including the transformation of methionine to S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), the use of SAM in many different transmethylation reactions resulting in a methylated product plus S-adenosylhomocysteine, and the conversion of S-adenosylhomocysteine to produce the compounds homocysteine and adenosine. The reactions mentioned above not only produce cysteine, they also create a-ketobutyrate. This compound is then converted to succinyl-CoA through a three step process after being converted to propionyl-CoA. If the amino acids cysteine and methionine are available in enough quantity, the pathway will accumulate SAM and this will in turn encourage the production of cysteine and a-ketobutyrate, which are both glucogenic, through cystathionine synthase. When there is a lack of methionine, there is a decrease in the production of SAM, which limits cystathionine synthase activity.


Pw000020 View Pathway

Degradation of Superoxides

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are formed by the normal metabolic process of oxygen. Examples are superoxide, oxygen ions and peroxides and can be of either organic or inorganic origin. ROS are highly reactive due to unpaired valence shell electrons, and can cause serious damage to cells and cell organelles. The environment also may cause ROS to form, from sources such as drought, air pollutants, UV light, cold temperatures, and external chemicals. An organic example of ROS being formed is during the beta oxidation of fatty acids, or photorespiration in photosynthetic organisms. Aerobic organisms who produce energy through the electron transport chain in mitochondria produce ROS as a byproduct. ROS damage commmonly includes DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, oxidation of amino acids in proteins, and oxidatively inactivating enzymes by oxidation of cofactors. Most aerobic organisms have adapted to this dangerous condition of life, and have a system of enzymes and scavenging free radicals. Enzymes such as are essential for defense against ROS, and include superoxide dismutases (SODs) and hydroperoxidase (CAT). Superoxide dismutases are the primary method of disposal of ROS, and convert superoxide radicals to hydrogen peroxide and water. Catalase attacks the hydrogen peroxide produced by SODs, and converts it into oxygen and water. In skin cells, 5,6 dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid oxidase in the melanosome membranes breaks down hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen.


Pw000157 View Pathway

Glycine and Serine Metabolism

This pathway describes the synthesis and breakdown of several small amino acids, including glycine, serine, and cysteine. All of these compounds share common intermediates and almost all can be biosynthesized from one another. Serine and glycine are not essential amino acids and can be synthesized from several routes. On the other hand, cysteine is a conditionally essential amino acid, meaning that it can be endogenously synthesized but insufficient quantities may be produced due to certain diseases or conditions. Serine is central to the synthesis and breakdown of the other two amino acids. Serine can be synthesized via glycerate, which can be converted into glycerate 3-phosphate (via glycerate kinase), which in turn is converted into phosphohydroxypyruvate by phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase and then phosphoserine (via phosphoserine transaminase) and finally to serine (via phosphoserine phosphatase). The serine synthesized via this route can be used to create cysteine and glycine through the homocysteine cycle. In the homocysteine cycle, cystathionine beta-synthase catalyzes the condensation of homocysteine and serine to give cystathionine. Cystathionine beta-lyase then converts this double amino acid to cysteine, ammonia, and alpha-ketoglutarate. Glycine is biosynthesized in the body from the amino acid serine. In most organisms, the enzyme serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) catalyzes this transformation using tetrahydrofolate (THF), leading to methylene THF and glycine. Glycine can be degraded via three pathways. The predominant pathway in animals involves the glycine cleavage system, also known as the glycine decarboxylase complex or GDC. This system is usually triggered in response to high concentrations of glycine. The system is sometimes referred to as glycine synthase when it runs in the reverse direction to produce glycine. The glycine cleavage system consists of four weakly interacting proteins: T, P, L and H-proteins. The glycine cleavage system leads to the degradation of glycine into ammonia and CO2. In the second pathway, glycine is degraded in two steps. The first step in this degradation pathway is the reverse of glycine biosynthesis from serine with serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT). The serine generated via glycine is then converted into pyruvate by the enzyme known as serine dehydratase. In the third route to glycine degradation, glycine is converted into glyoxylate by D-amino acid oxidase. Glyoxylate is then oxidized by hepatic lactate dehydrogenase into oxalate in an NAD+-dependent reaction.
Showing 41 - 50 of 49827 pathways