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Showing 581 - 590 of 49827 pathways
SMPDB ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins

SMP0000614

Pw000590 View Pathway
Drug Metabolism

Lansoprazole Metabolism Pathway

Lansoprazole, sold as Prevacid, is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) class drug that suppresses the final step in gastric acid production. In this pathway, lansoprazole is taken orally and is oxidized in the stomach to form the active metabolite of lansoprazole. This active metabolite then binds covalently to the potassium-transporting ATPase protein subunits, found at the secretory surface of the gastric parietal cell, preventing any stimulus. Because the drug binds covalently, its effects are dose-dependent and last much longer than similar drugs that bind to the protein non-covalently. This is because additional ATPase enzymes must be created to replace the ones covalently bound by pantoprazole. Lansoprazole is used to manage gastroesophageal reflux disease, to prevent stomach ulcers, and can be used to help treat the effects of a H. pylori infection.

SMP0000615

Pw000591 View Pathway
Drug Metabolism

Pantoprazole Metabolism Pathway

Pantoprazole is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) class drug that suppresses the final step in gastric acid production. In this pathway, pantoprazole is oxidized in the stomach to form the active metabolite of pantoprazole. This active metabolite then binds covalently to the potassium-transporting ATPase protein subunits, found at the secretory surface of the gastric parietal cell, preventing any stimulus. Because the drug binds covalently, its effects are dose-dependent and last much longer than similar drugs that bind to the protein non-covalently. This is because additional ATPase enzymes must be created to replace the ones covalently bound by pantoprazole. Pantoprazole is used to manage gastroesophageal reflux disease, to prevent stomach ulcers, and can be used to help treat the effects of a H. pylori infection.

SMP0000616

Pw000592 View Pathway
Drug Metabolism

Rabeprazole Metabolism Pathway

Rabeprazole is a drug that belongs to the anti secretory drug class. It is used as an anti-ulcer medication, and helps relieve gastric acid reflux, gastric irritation and gastric pain. It inhibits the proton pump action of ATPase, which blocks the final step of gastric acid secretion. The pathway begins in the parietal cell in the stomach, where rabeprazole and a hydrogen ion use the active metabolite in rabeprazole —rabeprazole thioether — to inhibit potassium-transporting ATPase at the secretory surface of the gastric parietal cell. Now in the gastric endothelial cell, these secretory surfaces are inhibited by rabeprazole and by G-Protein signalling cascade through somatostatin receptor type 4, which is activated by somatostatin. At the same time, potassium-transporting ATPase is activated by the G-protein signalling cascade, through histamine H2 receptor, gastrin/cholecystokinin type B receptor, and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 which are activated by histamine, gastrin and acetylcholine, respectively. The potassium transporting ATPase also converts water and ATP to a phosphate molecule and ADP. Alongside the transporters, potassium is brought into the cell. Carbonic anhydrase 1 uses water and carbon dioxide to create hydrogen carbonate and a hydrogen ion, which are both transported out of the endothelial cell, into the gastric lumen. A chloride ion is transported into the gastric endothelial cell through a chloride anion exchanger and is transported out of the cell through a chloride intracellular channel protein 2, back into the gastric lumen.

SMP0000617

Pw000593 View Pathway
Drug Metabolism

Cimetidine Metabolism Pathway

Cimetidine, sold as Tagamet, is a compound related to histamine. It is a H2 antagonist drug, also called H2RAs or H2 blockers, and was the first of this class to be discovered. H2 antagonist drugs compete with histamine to bind to the histamine H2-receptors found on the basolateral membrane of gastric parietal cells. This blocks histamine effects, resulting in reduced gastric acid secretion and a reduction in gastric volume and acidity. Cimetidine also helps to block pepsin and gastrin output, and due to the inhibition of gastric acid secretion, it is typically used to treat heartburn and ulcers. Cimetidine also blocks the activity of cytochrome P-450 enzymes CYP1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1 and 3A4, which may affect the metabolism of other drugs.

SMP0000618

Pw000594 View Pathway
Drug Metabolism

Fosphenytoin (Antiarrhythmic) Metabolism Pathway

This pathway illustrates the fosphenytoin targets involved in antiarrhythmic therapy. Contractile activity of cardiac myocytes is elicited via action potentials mediated by a number of ion channel proteins. During rest, or diastole, cells maintain a negative membrane potential; i.e. the inside the cell is negatively charged relative to the cells’ extracellular environment. Membrane ion pumps, such as the sodium-potassium ATPase and sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX), maintain low intracellular sodium (5 mM) and calcium (100 nM) concentrations and high intracellular potassium (140 mM) concentrations. Conversely, extracellular concentrations of sodium (140 mM) and calcium (1.8 mM) are relatively high and extracellular potassium concentrations are low (5 mM). At rest, the cardiac cell membrane is impermeable to sodium and calcium ions, but is permeable to potassium ions via inward rectifier potassium channels (I-K1), which allow an outward flow of potassium ions down their concentration gradient. The positive outflow of potassium ions aids in maintaining the negative intracellular electric potential. When cells reach a critical threshold potential, voltage-gated sodium channels (I-Na) open and the rapid influx of positive sodium ions into the cell occurs as the ions travel down their electrochemical gradient. This is known as the rapid depolarization or upstroke phase of the cardiac action potential. Sodium channels then close and rapidly activated potassium channels such as the voltage-gated transient outward delayed rectifying potassium channel (I-Kto) and the voltage-gated ultra rapid delayed rectifying potassium channel (I-Kur) open. These events make up the early repolarization phase during which potassium ions flow out of the cell and sodium ions are continually pumped out. During the next phase, known as the plateau phase, calcium L-type channels (I-CaL) open and the resulting influx of calcium ions roughly balances the outward flow of potassium channels. During the final repolarization phase, the voltage-gated rapid (I-Kr) and slow (I-Ks) delayed rectifying potassium channels open increasing the outflow of potassium ions and repolarizing the cell. The extra sodium and calcium ions that entered the cell during the action potential are extruded via sodium-potassium ATPases and NCX and intra- and extracellular ion concentrations are restored. In specialized pacemaker cells, gradual depolarization to threshold occurs via funny channels (I-f). Fosphenytoin, an antiepileptic drug that exhibits Class 1B antiarrhythmic effects, is a soluble pro-drug phosphate ester. It is rapidly absorbed intramuscularly and rapidly metabolized in the blood stream by plasma esterases to the active drug, phenytoin. Fosphenytoin was developed to replace parenteral phenytoin sodium for the treatment of epileptic seizures. Parenteral phenytoin sodium was originally prepared in 40% propylene glycol and 10% ethanol at pH 12. This formulation exhibited a range of toxic effects from severe irritation and pain at the injection site to occasional death from rapid injections. Although fosphenytoin is used to treat epileptic seizures, antiarrhythmic effects have also been observed. The active metabolite, phenytoin, preferentially binds to sodium channels (I-Na) in their inactive state. This causes a slight delay in the rapid depolarization phase of cardiac myocyte action potentials. In contrast to Class 1A antiarrhythmic drugs (e.g. quinidine) which prolong action potential duration, fosphenytoin and other Class 1B antiarrhythmics reduce the refractory period or action potential duration due to their membrane stabilizing effects. Phenytoin has been found to be beneficial in the treatment of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias.

SMP0000619

Pw000595 View Pathway
Drug Metabolism

Felodipine Metabolism Pathway

Felodipine is a medication used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure). Untreated hypertension can lead to a heart attack, heart disease or stroke. High sodium intake can contribute to hypertension. Felodipine works by blocking calcium channels in vascular smooth muscle cells, stabilizing these voltage-gated L-type calcium channels, which will stop calcium-dependent myocyte vasoconstriction. This widens the blood vessels, allowing for more blood to pass through, lowering blood pressure. When used to treat angina, felodipine acts through improving the amount of blood pumping to the heart. Hypertension is a very common condition in North America, and can be managed with medication, diet and a healthy lifestyle. This pathway depicts the pharmacological action of felodipine on arterial smooth muscle cells. Felodipine decreases arterial smooth muscle contractility and subsequent vasoconstriction by inhibiting the influx of calcium ions through L-type calcium channels. Calcium ions entering the cell through these channels bind to calmodulin. Calcium-bound calmodulin then binds to and activates myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). Activated MLCK catalyzes the phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain subunit of myosin, a key step in muscle contraction. Signal amplification is achieved by calcium-induced calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum through ryanodine receptors. Inhibition of the initial influx of calcium decreases the contractile activity of arterial smooth muscle cells and results in vasodilation. The vasodilatory effects of felodipine result in an overall decrease in blood pressure. Felodipine may be used to treat mild to moderate essential hypertension. .

SMP0000620

Pw000596 View Pathway
Drug Metabolism

Lidocaine (Local Anaesthetic) Metabolism Pathway

Lidocaine exerts its local anaesthetic effect by blocking voltage-gated sodium channels in peripheral neurons. Lidocaine diffuses across the neuronal plasma membrane in its uncharged base form. Once inside the cytoplasm, it is protonated and this protonated form enters and blocks the pore of the voltage-gated sodium channel from the cytoplasmic side. For this to happen, the sodium channel must first become active so that so that gating mechanism is in the open state. Therefore lidocaine preferentially inhibits neurons that are actively firing.

SMP0000621

Pw000597 View Pathway
Drug Metabolism

Codeine Metabolism Pathway

Opiate receptors are coupled with G-protein receptors and function as both positive and negative regulators of synaptic transmission via G-proteins that activate effector proteins. Binding of the opiate stimulates the exchange of GTP for GDP on the G-protein complex. As the effector system is adenylate cyclase and cAMP located at the inner surface of the plasma membrane, opioids decrease intracellular cAMP by inhibiting adenylate cyclase. Subsequently, the release of nociceptive neurotransmitters such as substance P, GABA, dopamine, acetylcholine and noradrenaline is inhibited. Opioids also inhibit the release of vasopressin, somatostatin, insulin and glucagon. Codeine's analgesic activity is, most likely, due to its conversion to morphine. Opioids close N-type voltage-operated calcium channels (OP2-receptor agonist) and open calcium-dependent inwardly rectifying potassium channels (OP3 and OP1 receptor agonist). This results in hyperpolarization and reduced neuronal excitability.

SMP0000622

Pw000598 View Pathway
Drug Metabolism

Morphine Metabolism Pathway

Morphine exerts its analgesic by acting on the mu-opioid receptor of sensory neurons. Binding to the mu-opioid receptor activates associated G(i) proteins. These subsequently act to inhibit adenylate cyclase, reducing the level of intracellular cAMP. G(i) also activates potassium channels and inactivates calcium channels causing the neuron to hyperpolarize. The end result is decreased nerve conduction and reduced neurotransmitter release, which blocks the perception of pain signals.

SMP0000623

Pw000599 View Pathway
Drug Metabolism

Heroin Metabolism Pathway

Heroin is a mu-opioid agonist. It acts on endogenous mu-opioid receptors that are spread in discrete packets throughout the brain, spinal cord and gut in almost all mammals. Heroin, along with other opioids, are agonists to four endogenous neurotransmitters. They are beta-endorphin, dynorphin, leu-enkephalin, and met-enkephalin. The body responds to heroin in the brain by reducing (and sometimes stopping) production of the endogenous opioids when heroin is present. Endorphins are regularly released in the brain and nerves, attenuating pain.
Showing 581 - 590 of 49827 pathways