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Showing 601 - 610 of 49833 pathways
SMPDB ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins


Pw000610 View Pathway
Drug Metabolism

Carbamazepine Metabolism Pathway

Carbamazepine is a drug used in the treatment of epilepsy, bipolar disorder, trigeminal neuralgia, and other psychiatric disorders. Carbamazepine is almost entirely metabolized in the liver, with the primary metabolic pathway being conversion to 10,11-epoxycarbamazepine. Ring hydroxylation to 2-hydroxycarbamazepine and 3-hydroxycarbamazepine represent a minor metabolic route, presumably though a carbamazepine 2,3-epoxide intermediate. Potential bioactivation occurs via CYP3A4-mediated secondary oxidation of 2-hydroxycarbamazepine to the potentially reactive carbamazepine iminoquinone and of 3-hydroxycarbamazepine to form other reactive metabolites. Radicals can also be formed from metabolism of 3-hydroxycarbamazepine by myeloperoxidase. Oxcarbazepine, an anticonvulsant used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy, is converted to 10,11-dihydroxycarbamazepine via 10-hydroxycarbazepine.


Pw000611 View Pathway
Drug Metabolism

Valproic Acid Metabolism Pathway

Valproic acid (VPA) is metabolized almost entirely in the liver, via at least there routes: glucuronidation, beta oxidation in the mitochondria, and cytochrome P450 mediated oxidation. The glucuronidation of VPA is mediated by UGT1A3, UGT1A4, UGT1A6, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, UGT1A10, UGT2B7 and UGT2B15. The key CYP-mediated reaction of the VPA metabolic pathway is the generation of 4-ene-VPA by CYP2C9, CYP2A6 and CYP2B6. These three enzymes also catalyze the formation of 4-OH-VPA and 5-OH-VPA. Moreover, CYP2A6 mediates the oxidation of VPA to 3-OH-VPA. Inside the mitochondria, the first step of oxidation is the formation of (VPA-CoA) catalyzed by medium-chain acyl-CoA synthase, followed by the conversion to 2-ene-VPA-CoA through 2-methyl-branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADSB). 2-ene-VPA-CoA is further converted to 3-hydroxyl-valproyl-VPA (3-OH-VPA-CoA) by an enoyl-CoA hydratase, crotonase (ECSH1) and then 3-OH-VPA-CoA is metabolized to 3-keto-valproyl-CoA (3-oxo-VPA-CoA) through the action of 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase. Another route of VPA metabolism in the mitochondria includes the conversion of 4-ene-VPA to 4-ene-VPA-CoA ester catalyzed by ACADSB, followed by a beta-oxidation to form 2,4-diene-VPA-CoA ester. The latter metabolite can furthermore be conjugated to glutathione to form thiol metabolites.


Pw000612 View Pathway
Drug Metabolism

Venlafaxine Metabolism Pathway

Venlafaxine (also named as Effexor or Elafax) is an antidepressant medication, which belongs to the class of serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI). Venlafaxine is well absorbed into the circulation system. Venlafaxine is also metabolized to N-desmethylvenlafaxine. The N-demethylation is catalyzed by CYP3A4 and CYP2C19. N-desmethylvenlafaxine is a weaker serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. Both O-desmethylvenlafaxine (as potent a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) and N-desmethylvenlafaxine are further metabolized by CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and/or CYP3A4 to a minor metabolite N,O-didesmethylvenlafaxine that is further metabolized into N,N,O-tridesmethylvenlafaxine or excreted as N,O-didesmethylvenlafaxine gucuronide. Later on, O-desmethylvenlafaxine is exported without any change in chemical structure. Venlafaxine is exported via two transporters: Multidrug resistance protein 1 and ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2.


Pw000613 View Pathway
Drug Metabolism

Tramadol Metabolism Pathway

Tramadol (also named Ultram) is a class of opioid pain medication that used for treating pain. Metabolism of tramadol mainly happened in liver cell. The N-demethylation of tramadol is catalyzed by the cytochrome CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 to form N-Desmethyltramadol, which further metabolized to N,N-Didesmethyltramadol through CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 and to N,O-Didesmethyltramadol through CYP2D6. The O-demethylation of tramadol is catalyzed by the cytochrome CYP2D6 to form O-Desmethyltramadol, which further metabolized to O-Desmethyltramadol glucuronide through UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-8. O-Desmethyltramadol can also be metabolized to N,O-Didesmethyltramadol through CYP2D6.


Pw000614 View Pathway
Drug Metabolism

Levomethadyl Acetate Metabolism Pathway

Levomethadyl Acetate (also known as levacetylmethadol or levo-α-acetylmethadol) (LAAM), is a synthetic opioid structurally similar to methadone. It is an opioid agonist that has been used as an analgesic and to treat opioid dependence. Levomethadyl Acetate is metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4 in two N-demethylation reactions to nor-levomethadyl acetate (nor-LAAM) and subsequently to dinor-levomethadyl acetate (dinor-LAAM).


Pw000615 View Pathway
Drug Metabolism

Clomipramine Metabolism Pathway

Clomipramine is a dibenzazepine-derivative tricyclic antidepressant. Clomipramine may be used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and disorders with an obsessive-compulsive component (e.g. depression, schizophrenia, Tourette's disorder). Clomipramine works by inhibiting seretonin reuptake, therefore increasing the seretonin levels. Administrated Clomipramine is quickly enters the blood stream and 98% becomes bound to plasma protein. Because of this and Clomipramine's lipophilic properties, Clomipramine has a large volume of distribution.


Pw000616 View Pathway
Drug Metabolism

Acetaminophen Metabolism Pathway

Acetaminophen (APAP) is metabolized primarily in the liver. Glucuronidation is the main route, accounting for 45-55% of APAP metabolism, and is mediatied by UGT1A1, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, UGT2B15 in the liver and UGT1A10 in the gut. APAP can also by metabolized via sulfation, accounting for 30-35% of the metabolism. In the liver, this step is catalyzed by the sulfotransferases SULT1A1, SULT1A3, SULT1A4, SULT1E1 and SULT2A1. Moreover, APAP can also be activated to form the toxic N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI) under the mediation of CYP3A4, CYP2E1, CYP2D6 CYP1A2, CYP2E1 and CYP2A6.


Pw000617 View Pathway
Drug Metabolism

Doxepin Metabolism Pathway

Doxepin is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) that can be used for treating major depressive disorder and sleep maintenance. Doxepin is metabolized by cytochrome P450 2C19, 1A2, 2C9, 3A4 to form N-desmethyldoxepin, and form (E)-2-hydroxydoxepin by solely cytochrome P450 2D6 in ER of liver.


Pw000618 View Pathway
Drug Metabolism

Nevirapine Metabolism Pathway

Nevirapine is used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 (HIV-1) infection. It is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) that binds to the tyrosines at amino acid residues 181 and 188 of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Nevirapine is metabolized in the liver to 2-, 3-, 8-, and 12-hydroxynevirapine by the induction of CYP enzymes, mainly CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. 12-hydroxynevirapine may be further oxidated by ALDH to form 4-carboxynevirapine. These hydroxyl metabolites are glucuronidated by UDP glucuronosyl transferases (UGTs), then exit the cell via the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette gene ABCC10 for urinary excretion.


Pw000620 View Pathway
Drug Metabolism

Celecoxib Metabolism Pathway

Celecoxib, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), is a selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), also known as prostaglandin G/H synthase 2. Like other NSAIDs, celecoxib exerts its effects by inhibiting the synthesis of prostaglandins involved in pain, fever and inflammation. COX-2 catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin G2 (PGE2) and PGE2 to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2). In the COX-2 catalyzed pathway, PGH2 is the precusor of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and I2 (PGI2). PGE2 induces pain, fever, erythema and edema. Celecoxib antagonizes COX-2 by binding to the upper portion of the active site, preventing its substrate, arachidonic acid, from entering the active site. Similar to other COX-2 inhibitors, such as rofecoxib and valdecoxib, celecoxib appears to exploit slight differences in the size of the COX-1 and -2 binding pockets to gain selectivity. COX-1 contains isoleucines at positions 434 and 523, whereas COX-2 has slightly smaller valines occupying these positions. Studies support the notion that the extra methylene on the isoleucine side chains in COX-1 adds enough bulk to proclude celecoxib from binding. Celecoxib is approximately ten times more selective for COX-2 than COX-1. Celecoxib is used mainly to treat rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis which require something more potent than aspirin. The analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects of celecoxib occur as a result of decreased prostaglandin synthesis. The first part of this figure depicts the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic pathway of celecoxib. The latter portion of this figure depicts celecoxib’s potential involvement in platelet aggregation. Prostaglandin synthesis varies across different tissue types. Platelets, which are anuclear cells derived from fragmentation of megakaryocytes, contain COX-1, but not COX-2. COX-1 activity in platelets is required for thromboxane A2 (TxA2)-mediated platelet aggregation. Platelet activation and coagulation do not normally occur in intact blood vessels. After blood vessel injury, platelets adhere to the subendothelial collagen at the site of injury. Activation of collagen receptors initiates phospholipase C (PLC)-mediated signaling cascades resulting in the release of intracellular calcium from the dense tubula system. The increase in intracellular calcium activates kinases required for morphological change, transition to the procoagulant surface, secretion of granular contents, activation of glycoproteins, and the activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Activation of PLA2 results in the liberation of arachidonic acid, a precursor to prostaglandin synthesis, from membrane phospholipids. The accumulation of TxA2, ADP and thrombin mediates further platelet recruitment and signal amplification. TxA2 and ADP stimulate their respective G-protein coupled receptors, thomboxane A2 receptor and P2Y purinoreceptor 12, and inhibit the production of cAMP via adenylate cyclase inhibition. This counteracts the adenylate cyclase stimulatory effects of the platelet aggregation inhibitor, PGI2, produced by neighbouring endothelial cells. Platelet adhesion, cytoskeletal remodeling, granular secretion and signal amplification are independent processes that lead to the activation of the fibrinogen receptor. Fibrinogen receptor activation exposes fibrinogen binding sites and allows platelet cross-linking and aggregation to occur. Neighbouring endothelial cells found in blood vessels express both COX-1 and COX-2. COX-2 in endothelial cells mediates the synthesis of PGI2, an effective platelet aggregation inhibitor and vasodilator, while COX-1 mediates vasoconstriction and stimulates platelet aggregation. PGI2 produced by endothelial cells encounters platelets in the blood stream and binds to the G-protein coupled prostacyclin receptor. This causes G-protein mediated activation of adenylate cyclase, which catalyzes the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic AMP (cAMP). Four cAMP molecules then bind to the regulatory subunits of the inactive cAMP-dependent protein kinase holoenzyme causing dissociation of the regulatory subunits and leaving two active catalytic subunit monomers. The active subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalyze the phosphorylation of a number of proteins. Phosphorylation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) inhibits the release of calcium from the ER. This in turn inhibits the calcium-dependent events, including PLA2 activation, involved in platelet activation and aggregation. Inhibition of PLA2 decreases intracellular TxA2 and inhibits the platelet aggregation pathway. cAMP-dependent kinase also phosphorylates the actin-associated protein, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein. Phosphorylation inhibits protein activity, which includes cytoskeleton reorganization and platelet activation. Celecoxib preferentially inhibits COX-2 with little activity against COX-1. COX-2 inhibition in endothelial cells decreases the production of PGI2 and the ability of these cells to inhibit platelet aggregation and stimulate vasodilation. These effects are thought to be responsible for the adverse cardiovascular effects observed with other selective COX-2 inhibitors, such as rofecoxib, which has since been withdrawn from the market.
Showing 601 - 610 of 49833 pathways