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Showing 61 - 70 of 49833 pathways
SMPDB ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins


Pw000152 View Pathway


Gluconeogenesis, which is essentially the reverse of glycolysis, results in the sythesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate substrates such as lactate, glycerol, and glucogenic amino acids. In animals, gluconeogenesis occurs primarily in the liver, and in the renal cortex to a lesser extent. This process occurs during periods of fasting or intense exercise. Gluconeogenesis is often associated with ketosis. Several non-carbohydrate carbon substrates can enter the gluconeogenesis pathway. One common substrate is lactic acid, formed during anaerobic respiration in skeletal muscle. Lactate may also come from red blood cells, which obtain energy solely from glycolysis as they have no membrane-bound organelles for aerobic respiration. Lactate is transported to the liver to be converted into pyruvate in the Cori cycle by lactate dehydrogenase. Pyruvate can then be used to generate glucose via gluconeogenesis. Many other compounds can also function as substrates for gluconeogenesis such as citric acid cycle intermediates (through conversion to oxaloacetate), amino acids other than lysine or leucine, and glycerol .


Pw000006 View Pathway

Alpha Linolenic Acid and Linoleic Acid Metabolism

Linoleic acid (LNA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) precursor to the longer n−6 fatty acids commonly known as omega-6 fatty acids. Omega-6 fatty acids are characterized by a carbon-carbon double bond at the sixth carbon from the methyl group. Similarly, the PUFA alpha-linoleic acid (ALA) is the precursor to n-3 fatty acids known as omega-3 fatty acids which is characterized by a carbon-carbon double bond at the third carbon from the methyl group. Both LNA and ALA are essential dietary requirements for all mammals since they cannot be synthesized natively in the body. Both undergo a series of similar conversions to reach their final fatty acid form. LNA enters the cell and is catalyzed to gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) by acyl-CoA 6-desaturase (delta-6-desaturase/fatty acid desaturase 2). GLA is then converted to dihomo-gammalinolenic acid (DGLA) by elongation of very long chain fatty acids protein 5 (ELOVL5). DGLA is then converted to arachidonic acid (AA) by acyl-CoA (8-3)-desaturase (delta-5-desaturase/fatty acid desaturase 1). Arachidonic acid is then converted to a series of short lived metabolites called eicosanoids before finally reaching it's final fatty acid form.


Pw000013 View Pathway

Biotin Metabolism

Biotin is a vitamin that is an essential nutrient for humans. Biotin can be absorbed from consuming various foods such as: legumes, soybeans, tomatoes, romaine lettuce, eggs, cow's milk, oats and many more. Biotin acts as a cofactor for enzymes to catalyze carboxylation reactions involved in gluconeogenesis, amino acid catabolism and fatty acid metabolism. Biotin deficiency has been associated with many human diseases. These diseases may be caused by dysfunctional biotin metabolism due to enzyme deficiencies. Some research suggests biotin may play a role in transcription regulation or protein expression which may lead to biotin related diseases.


Pw000164 View Pathway

Retinol Metabolism

Retinol is part of the vitamin A family, and is known as vitamin A1, and in a dietary context it is a type of preformed vitamin A. As with other preformed vitamin A's, it can be obtained from animal sources, with the highest concentrations coming from animal liver, with other sources being fish and dairy products. Other forms of vitamin A include retinal, its aldehyde form, retinoic acid, its acid form, and reinyl ester, its ester form. Additionally, herbivores and omnivores can obtain provitamin A from things such as alpha-, beta- and gamma-carotene, which can be converted to retinol as needed by the body. Retinol can be used in the body to form retinyl ester via diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 and acyl-CoA wax akcohol acyltransferase 1 which both use acetyl-CoA as a reactant and produce CoA in addition to the retinyl ester. IT can also be produced by lecithin retinol acyltransferase, which uses a phosphatidylcholine molecule, and produces glycerophosphocholine. All of these reactions take place in the endoplasmic reticulum. Retinyl ester can also be converted back to retinol by patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 4 as the enzyme in a reaction that also converts a diacylglycerol to a triacylglycerol. Alternately, retinyl ester can interact with retinoid isomerohydrolase to form 11-cis-retinol. 11-cis-retinol can be converted to retinyl palmitate by either diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 or acyl-CoA wax alcohol acyltransferase 1 in the endoplasmic reticulum, which both add the acetyl group onto 11-cis-retinol, forming CoA as a side product. Alternatively, retinyl palmitate can be formed by lecithin retinol acyltransferase, which takes a molecule of phosphatidylcholine, and produces glycerophosphocholine in addition to the retinyl palmitate. Rhodopsin, a photosensitive protein found in the retina, can be converted to bathorhodopsin, which has previously been known as prelumirhodopsin. This conversion is caused by the absorption of light into the retinal portion of the protein complex, which then isomerizes, forcing the protein to change shape to accomodate this. Bathorhodopsin almost immediately converts to lumirhodopsin, which then converts to metarhodopsin, and at this point, the retinal is in its all-trans configuration. All-trans retinal can also be formed from 11-cis-retinaldehyde, also known as 11-cis-retinal, via dehydrogenase/reductase SDR family member 4 or retinol dehydrogenase 12 in the cell, as well as retinol dehydrogenases 8 and 16, short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase 3 or dehydrogenase/reductase SRD family member 9 in the endoplasmic reticulum. Two molecules of retinal can also be formed from beta-carotene, after its interaction with betabeta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase, or from retinol via retinol dehydrogenase 11 in the endoplasmic reticulum. Additionally, 11-cis-retinaldehyde can reversibly form all-trans retinal via interaction with alcohol dehydrogenase 1A. 11-cis-retinaldehyde is also in the conformation found in rhodopsin, and can be used to create more rhodopsin complexes. 11-cis-retinaldehyde can also be converted to 11-cis-retinol by retinol dehydrogenase in the endoplasmic reticulum. Retinol can also isomerize and form 9-cis-retinol, which can then be reversibly oxidized to form 9-cis-retinal by interacting with either retinol dehydrogenase 11 or dehydrogenase/reductase SDR family member 4. 9-cis-retinal can then be further oxidized to 9-cis-retinoic acid by retinal dehydrogenase 1 or 2. 9-cis-retinoic acid can also be formed from the isomerization of all-trans retinoic acid, which in turn is formed by the oxidation of retinol by either of retinal dehydrogenase 1 or 2. All-trans retinoic acid can also be glucuronidated to form retinoyl b-glucuronide, in a reaction catalyzed by a multiprotein chaperone complex including UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1 in the endoplasmic reticulum. Finally, in the endoplasmic reticulum, all-trans-retinoic acid can undergo epoxidation to form all-trans-5,6-epoxyretinoic acid by interaction with a complex of cytochrome P450 proteins, or hydroxylated to either 4-hydroxyretinoic acid or all-trans-18-hydroxyretinoic acid by cytochrome P450 26A1. In one last reqction, 4-hydroxyretinoic acid can be oxidized once again by cytochrome P450 26A1 to form 4-oxo-retinoic acid.


Pw000145 View Pathway

Bile Acid Biosynthesis

A bile acids life begins as cholesterol is catabolized, as bile acid is a derivative of cholesterol. This pathway occurs in the liver, beginning with cholesterol being converted to 7a-hydroxycholesterol through the enzyme cholesterol-7-alpha-monooxygenase, after being transported into the liver cell. 7a-hydroxycholesterol then becomes 7a-hydroxy-cholestene-3-one, which is made possible by the enzyme 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 7. 7a-hydroxy-cholestene-3-one then is used in two different chains of reactions. The first, continuing in the liver, uses the enzyme 3-oxo-5-beta-steroid-4-deydrogenase to become 7a-hydroxy-5b-cholestan-3-one. After that, aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C4 is used to create 3a,7a-dihydroxy-5b-cholestane. In the mitochondria of the cell, sterol 26-hydroxylase converts 3a,7a-dihydroxy-5b-cholestane to 3a,7a,26-trihydroxy-5b-cholestane, which is then converted to 3a,7a-dihydroxy-5b-cholestan-26-al by the same enzyme used in the previous reaction. This enzyme is used another time, to create 3a,7a-dihydroxycoprostanic acid. Then, bile acyl-CoA synthetase teams up with 3a,7a-dihydroxycoprostanic acid to create 3a,7a-dihydroxy-5b-cholestanoyl-CoA. 3a,7a-dihydroxy-5b-cholestanoyl-CoA remains intact while alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase moves it along through the peroxisome. Peroxisomal acyl coenzyme A oxidase 2 converts 3a,7a-dihydroxy-5b-cholestanoyl-CoA into 3a,7a-dihydoxy-5b-cholest-24-enoyl-CoA. With the help of water, peroxisomal multifunctional enzyme type 2 turns 3a,7a-dihydoxy-5b-cholest-24-enoyl-CoA into 3a,7a,24-trihydoxy-5b-cholestanoyl-CoA. This compound then uses peroxisomal multifunctional enzyme type 2 to create chenodeoxycholoyl-CoA. From there, propionyl-CoA and chenodeoxycholoyl-CoA join forces and enlist the help of non-specific lipid transfer protein to further chenodeoxycholoyl-CoAâ€TMs journey in the peroxisome. It is then transported back into intracellular space, where after its used in 3 different reactions, its derivatives interact with intestinal microflora in the extracellular space to become lithocholyltaurine, lithocholic acid glycine conjugate, and lithocholic acid. Revisiting 7a-hydroxy-cholestene-3-one, the second chain of reactions it is involved in follows a similar path as the first, moving through the mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and peroxisome until choloyl-CoA is formed, which then is used in three reactions so that its derivatives may leave the cell to interact with intestinal microflora and become taurodeoxycholic acid, deoxycholic acid glycine conjugate and deoxycholic acid. There are two more important components of this pathway, both depicting the breakdown of cholesterol into bile acid. These components of the pathway occur in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, although 2 enzymes, 25-hydroxycholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase and sterol 26 hydroxylase, are found in the mitochondria. Bile acids play a very important part in the digestion of foods, and are responsible for the absorption of water soluble vitamins in the small intestine. Bile acids also help absorb fats into the small intestine, a crucial part of any vertebrates diet.


Pw000001 View Pathway

Alanine Metabolism

Alanine (L-Alanine) is an α-amino acid that is used for protein biosynthesis. Approximately 8% of human proteins have alanine in their structures. The reductive lamination of pyruvate is effected by alanine transaminase. L-Alanine can be converted to pyruvic acid by alanine aminotransferase 1 reversibly coupled with interconversion of oxoglutaric acid and L-glutamic acid. L-Alanine can also be produced by alanine-glyoxylate transaminase with coupled interconversion of glyoxylate and glycine. L-Alanine will be coupled with alanyl tRNA by alanyl-tRNA synthetase to perform protein biosynthesis. Alanine can also be used to provide energy under fasting conditions. There are two pathways that can facilitate this: (1) alanine is converted to pyruvate to synthesize glucose via the gluconeogenesis pathway in liver tissue or (2) alanine converted into pyruvate moves into the TCA cycle to be oxidized in other tissues.


Pw000025 View Pathway

Fructose and Mannose Degradation

Fructose and mannose are monosaccharides that can be found in many foods. Fructose can join with glucose to form sucrose. Mannose can be converted to glucose. Both may be used as food sweeteners. Fructose is well absorbed, especially in the presence of glucose. Fructose causes less of an insulin response compared to glucose and thus may be a preferred sugar for diabetics. In contrast to fructose, humans do not metabolize mannose well with the majority of it being excreted unchanged. Mannose in the urine can be beneficial in treating urinary tract infections caused be E. coli. However, mannose can be detrimental to humans by causing diabetic complications.


Pw000020 View Pathway

Degradation of Superoxides

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are formed by the normal metabolic process of oxygen. Examples are superoxide, oxygen ions and peroxides and can be of either organic or inorganic origin. ROS are highly reactive due to unpaired valence shell electrons, and can cause serious damage to cells and cell organelles. The environment also may cause ROS to form, from sources such as drought, air pollutants, UV light, cold temperatures, and external chemicals. An organic example of ROS being formed is during the beta oxidation of fatty acids, or photorespiration in photosynthetic organisms. Aerobic organisms who produce energy through the electron transport chain in mitochondria produce ROS as a byproduct. ROS damage commmonly includes DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, oxidation of amino acids in proteins, and oxidatively inactivating enzymes by oxidation of cofactors. Most aerobic organisms have adapted to this dangerous condition of life, and have a system of enzymes and scavenging free radicals. Enzymes such as are essential for defense against ROS, and include superoxide dismutases (SODs) and hydroperoxidase (CAT). Superoxide dismutases are the primary method of disposal of ROS, and convert superoxide radicals to hydrogen peroxide and water. Catalase attacks the hydrogen peroxide produced by SODs, and converts it into oxygen and water. In skin cells, 5,6 dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid oxidase in the melanosome membranes breaks down hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen.


Pw000157 View Pathway

Glycine and Serine Metabolism

This pathway describes the synthesis and breakdown of several small amino acids, including glycine, serine, and cysteine. All of these compounds share common intermediates and almost all can be biosynthesized from one another. Serine and glycine are not essential amino acids and can be synthesized from several routes. On the other hand, cysteine is a conditionally essential amino acid, meaning that it can be endogenously synthesized but insufficient quantities may be produced due to certain diseases or conditions. Serine is central to the synthesis and breakdown of the other two amino acids. Serine can be synthesized via glycerate, which can be converted into glycerate 3-phosphate (via glycerate kinase), which in turn is converted into phosphohydroxypyruvate by phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase and then phosphoserine (via phosphoserine transaminase) and finally to serine (via phosphoserine phosphatase). The serine synthesized via this route can be used to create cysteine and glycine through the homocysteine cycle. In the homocysteine cycle, cystathionine beta-synthase catalyzes the condensation of homocysteine and serine to give cystathionine. Cystathionine beta-lyase then converts this double amino acid to cysteine, ammonia, and alpha-ketoglutarate. Glycine is biosynthesized in the body from the amino acid serine. In most organisms, the enzyme serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) catalyzes this transformation using tetrahydrofolate (THF), leading to methylene THF and glycine. Glycine can be degraded via three pathways. The predominant pathway in animals involves the glycine cleavage system, also known as the glycine decarboxylase complex or GDC. This system is usually triggered in response to high concentrations of glycine. The system is sometimes referred to as glycine synthase when it runs in the reverse direction to produce glycine. The glycine cleavage system consists of four weakly interacting proteins: T, P, L and H-proteins. The glycine cleavage system leads to the degradation of glycine into ammonia and CO2. In the second pathway, glycine is degraded in two steps. The first step in this degradation pathway is the reverse of glycine biosynthesis from serine with serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT). The serine generated via glycine is then converted into pyruvate by the enzyme known as serine dehydratase. In the third route to glycine degradation, glycine is converted into glyoxylate by D-amino acid oxidase. Glyoxylate is then oxidized by hepatic lactate dehydrogenase into oxalate in an NAD+-dependent reaction.


Pw000171 View Pathway

Mitochondrial Beta-Oxidation of Short Chain Saturated Fatty Acids

Beta-oxidation is the major degradative pathway for fatty acid esters in humans. Fatty acids and their CoA esters are found throughout the body, playing roles such as components of cellular lipids, regulators of enzymes and membrane channels, ligands for nuclear receptors, precursor molecules for hormones, and signalling molecules. Beta-oxidation occurs in the peroxisomes and mitochondria, the latter of which is depicted here. Whether beta-oxidation starts in the mitochondria or the peroxisome depends on the length of the fatty acid. Medium to long chain fatty acids go directly to the mitochondria, whereas very long chain fatty acids (>22 carbons) may be first metabolized down to octanyl-CoA in the peroxisomes and then transported to the mitochondria for the remainder of the oxidation. Beta-oxidation begins with fatty acids first being activated by an acyl-coenzyme A synthetase. This process uses ATP to produce a reactive fatty acyl adenylate which then reacts with coenzyme A to produce a fatty acyl-CoA. Short and medium chain fatty acids can enter the mitochondria directly via diffusion where they are activated in the mitochondrial matrix by acyl-coenzyme A synthetases. Long chain fatty acids must be activated in the outer mitochondrial membrane then transported as a carnatine complex into the mitochondria. A double bond is formed between C-2 and C-3 to produce trans-Δ2-enoyl-CoA which is catalyzed by acyl-CoA-dehydrogenases in the mitochondria. Enoyl CoA hydratase then hydrates the double bond between C-2 and C-3 to produce a L-beta-hydroxyacyl CoA which then has its hydroxyl group converted to a keto group to produce beta-ketoacyl CoA. Finally, the beta-ketoacyl CoA is cleaved by beta-ketothiolase and a thiol group is inserted between C-2 and C-3 to reduce the acyl-CoA and produce acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA can then enter the citric acid cycle.
Showing 61 - 70 of 49833 pathways