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Showing 61 - 70 of 605359 pathways
SMPDB ID Pathway Name and Description Pathway Class Chemical Compounds Proteins


Pw030608 View Pathway

Phosphatidylethanolamine Biosynthesis

Phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) are the second most abundant phospholipid in eukaryotic cell membranes, and contrary to phosphatidylcholine, it is concentrated with phosphatidylserine in the cell membrane's inner leaflet. In Homo sapiens, there exist two phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis pathways. In the visualization, all enzymes that are dark green in colour are membrane-localized. The first pathway synthesizes phosphatidylethanolamine from ethanolamine via the Kennedy pathway. First, the cytosol-localized enzyme choline/ethanolamine kinase catalyzes choline to convert to phosphocholine. Second, choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase, localized to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, catalyzes phosphocholine to convert to CDP-choline. Last, choline/ethanolaminephosphotransferase catalyzes phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis from CDP-choline. It requires either magnesium or manganese ions as cofactors. Phosphatidylethanolamine is also synthesized from phosphatidylserine at the mitochondrial inner membrane by phosphatidylserine decarboxylase. Phosphatidylserine, itself, is synthesized using a base-exchange reaction with phosphatidylcholine. This reaction is catalyzed by phosphatidylserine synthase which is located in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane.


Pw122276 View Pathway

Kidney Function - Descending Limb of the Loop of Henle

The loop of Henle of the nephron can be separated into an ascending limb and the descending limb. The ascending limb is highly impermeable to water, but permeable to solutes. Conversely, the descending limb is highly impermeable to solutes such as sodium, but permeable to water. As solutes are being actively transported out of the ascending limb, the solutes cause in increase in osmotic pressure. This, combined with the ability for water to move freely out of the descending limb, leads to a water reabsorption into the adjacent capillary network and a high concentration of sodium in the filtrate at the descending Limb. Water moves from the descending loop to the capillary network through aquaporin channels in the cell membrane.


Pw000013 View Pathway

Biotin Metabolism

Biotin is a vitamin that is an essential nutrient for humans. Biotin can be absorbed from consuming various foods such as: legumes, soybeans, tomatoes, romaine lettuce, eggs, cow's milk, oats and many more. Biotin acts as a cofactor for enzymes to catalyze carboxylation reactions involved in gluconeogenesis, amino acid catabolism and fatty acid metabolism. Biotin deficiency has been associated with many human diseases. These diseases may be caused by dysfunctional biotin metabolism due to enzyme deficiencies. Some research suggests biotin may play a role in transcription regulation or protein expression which may lead to biotin related diseases.


Pw000044 View Pathway

Arachidonic Acid Metabolism

This pathway describes the production and subsequent metabolism of arachidonic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid. In resting cells arachidonic acid is present in the phospholipids (especially phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine) of membranes of the body’s cells, and is particularly abundant in the brain. Typically a receptor-dependent event, requiring a transducing G protein, initiates phospholipid hydrolysis and releases the fatty acid into the intracellular medium. Three enzymes mediate this deacylation reaction including phospholipase A2 (PLA2), phospholipase C (PLC), and phospholipase D (PLD). Once released, free arachidonate has three possible fates: 1) reincorporation into phospholipids, 2) diffusion outside the cell, and 3) metabolism. Arachidonate metabolism is carried out by three distinct enzyme classes: cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, and cytochrome P450’s. Specifically, the enzymes cyclooxygenase and peroxidase lead to the synthesis of prostaglandin H2, which in turn is used to produce the prostaglandins, prostacyclin, and thromboxanes. The enzyme 5-lipoxygenase leads to 5-HPETE, which in turn is used to produce the leukotrienes, hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) and lipoxins. Some arachidonic acid is converted into midchain HETEs, omega-chain HETEs, dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs), and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) by cytochrome P450 epoxygenase hydroxylase activity. Several products of these pathways act within neurons to modulate the activities of ion channels, protein kinases, ion pumps, and neurotransmitter uptake systems, affecting processes such as cellular proliferation, inflammation, and hemostasis. The newly formed eicosanoids may also exit the cell of origin and bind to G-protein-coupled receptors present on nearby neurons or glial cells.


Pw000145 View Pathway

Bile Acid Biosynthesis

A bile acids life begins as cholesterol is catabolized, as bile acid is a derivative of cholesterol. This pathway occurs in the liver, beginning with cholesterol being converted to 7a-hydroxycholesterol through the enzyme cholesterol-7-alpha-monooxygenase, after being transported into the liver cell. 7a-hydroxycholesterol then becomes 7a-hydroxy-cholestene-3-one, which is made possible by the enzyme 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 7. 7a-hydroxy-cholestene-3-one then is used in two different chains of reactions. The first, continuing in the liver, uses the enzyme 3-oxo-5-beta-steroid-4-deydrogenase to become 7a-hydroxy-5b-cholestan-3-one. After that, aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C4 is used to create 3a,7a-dihydroxy-5b-cholestane. In the mitochondria of the cell, sterol 26-hydroxylase converts 3a,7a-dihydroxy-5b-cholestane to 3a,7a,26-trihydroxy-5b-cholestane, which is then converted to 3a,7a-dihydroxy-5b-cholestan-26-al by the same enzyme used in the previous reaction. This enzyme is used another time, to create 3a,7a-dihydroxycoprostanic acid. Then, bile acyl-CoA synthetase teams up with 3a,7a-dihydroxycoprostanic acid to create 3a,7a-dihydroxy-5b-cholestanoyl-CoA. 3a,7a-dihydroxy-5b-cholestanoyl-CoA remains intact while alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase moves it along through the peroxisome. Peroxisomal acyl coenzyme A oxidase 2 converts 3a,7a-dihydroxy-5b-cholestanoyl-CoA into 3a,7a-dihydoxy-5b-cholest-24-enoyl-CoA. With the help of water, peroxisomal multifunctional enzyme type 2 turns 3a,7a-dihydoxy-5b-cholest-24-enoyl-CoA into 3a,7a,24-trihydoxy-5b-cholestanoyl-CoA. This compound then uses peroxisomal multifunctional enzyme type 2 to create chenodeoxycholoyl-CoA. From there, propionyl-CoA and chenodeoxycholoyl-CoA join forces and enlist the help of non-specific lipid transfer protein to further chenodeoxycholoyl-CoAâ€TMs journey in the peroxisome. It is then transported back into intracellular space, where after its used in 3 different reactions, its derivatives interact with intestinal microflora in the extracellular space to become lithocholyltaurine, lithocholic acid glycine conjugate, and lithocholic acid. Revisiting 7a-hydroxy-cholestene-3-one, the second chain of reactions it is involved in follows a similar path as the first, moving through the mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and peroxisome until choloyl-CoA is formed, which then is used in three reactions so that its derivatives may leave the cell to interact with intestinal microflora and become taurodeoxycholic acid, deoxycholic acid glycine conjugate and deoxycholic acid. There are two more important components of this pathway, both depicting the breakdown of cholesterol into bile acid. These components of the pathway occur in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, although 2 enzymes, 25-hydroxycholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase and sterol 26 hydroxylase, are found in the mitochondria. Bile acids play a very important part in the digestion of foods, and are responsible for the absorption of water soluble vitamins in the small intestine. Bile acids also help absorb fats into the small intestine, a crucial part of any vertebrates diet.


Pw000056 View Pathway

Methionine Metabolism

Methionine metabolism is a process that is necessary for humans. Methionine metabolism in mammals happens within two pathways, a methionine cycle and a transsulfuration sequence. These pathways have three common reactions with both pathways including the transformation of methionine to S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), the use of SAM in many different transmethylation reactions resulting in a methylated product plus S-adenosylhomocysteine, and the conversion of S-adenosylhomocysteine to produce the compounds homocysteine and adenosine. The reactions mentioned above not only produce cysteine, they also create a-ketobutyrate. This compound is then converted to succinyl-CoA through a three step process after being converted to propionyl-CoA. If the amino acids cysteine and methionine are available in enough quantity, the pathway will accumulate SAM and this will in turn encourage the production of cysteine and a-ketobutyrate, which are both glucogenic, through cystathionine synthase. When there is a lack of methionine, there is a decrease in the production of SAM, which limits cystathionine synthase activity.


Pw000051 View Pathway

Valine, Leucine, and Isoleucine Degradation

Valine, isoleuciine, and leucine are essential amino acids and are identified as the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). The catabolism of all three amino acids starts in muscle and yields NADH and FADH2 which can be utilized for ATP generation. The catabolism of all three of these amino acids uses the same enzymes in the first two steps. The first step in each case is a transamination using a single BCAA aminotransferase, with α-ketoglutarate as the amine acceptor. As a result, three different α-keto acids are produced and are oxidized using a common branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD), yielding the three different CoA derivatives. Isovaleryl-CoA is produced from leucine by these two reactions, alpha-methylbutyryl-CoA from isoleucine, and isobutyryl-CoA from valine. These acyl-CoA’s undergo dehydrogenation, catalyzed by three different but related enzymes, and the breakdown pathways then diverge. Leucine is ultimately converted into acetyl-CoA and acetoacetate; isoleucine into acetyl-CoA and succinyl-CoA; and valine into propionyl-CoA (and subsequently succinyl-CoA). Under fasting conditions, substantial amounts of all three amino acids are generated by protein breakdown. In muscle, the final products of leucine, isoleucine, and valine catabolism can be fully oxidized via the citric acid cycle; in the liver, they can be directed toward the synthesis of ketone bodies (acetoacetate and acetyl-CoA) and glucose (succinyl-CoA). Because isoleucine catabolism terminates with the production of acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA, it is both glucogenic and ketogenic. Because leucine gives rise to acetyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA, it is classified as strictly ketogenic.


Pw000164 View Pathway

Retinol Metabolism

Retinol is part of the vitamin A family, and is known as vitamin A1, and in a dietary context it is a type of preformed vitamin A. As with other preformed vitamin A's, it can be obtained from animal sources, with the highest concentrations coming from animal liver, with other sources being fish and dairy products. Other forms of vitamin A include retinal, its aldehyde form, retinoic acid, its acid form, and reinyl ester, its ester form. Additionally, herbivores and omnivores can obtain provitamin A from things such as alpha-, beta- and gamma-carotene, which can be converted to retinol as needed by the body. Retinol can be used in the body to form retinyl ester via diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 and acyl-CoA wax akcohol acyltransferase 1 which both use acetyl-CoA as a reactant and produce CoA in addition to the retinyl ester. IT can also be produced by lecithin retinol acyltransferase, which uses a phosphatidylcholine molecule, and produces glycerophosphocholine. All of these reactions take place in the endoplasmic reticulum. Retinyl ester can also be converted back to retinol by patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 4 as the enzyme in a reaction that also converts a diacylglycerol to a triacylglycerol. Alternately, retinyl ester can interact with retinoid isomerohydrolase to form 11-cis-retinol. 11-cis-retinol can be converted to retinyl palmitate by either diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 or acyl-CoA wax alcohol acyltransferase 1 in the endoplasmic reticulum, which both add the acetyl group onto 11-cis-retinol, forming CoA as a side product. Alternatively, retinyl palmitate can be formed by lecithin retinol acyltransferase, which takes a molecule of phosphatidylcholine, and produces glycerophosphocholine in addition to the retinyl palmitate. Rhodopsin, a photosensitive protein found in the retina, can be converted to bathorhodopsin, which has previously been known as prelumirhodopsin. This conversion is caused by the absorption of light into the retinal portion of the protein complex, which then isomerizes, forcing the protein to change shape to accomodate this. Bathorhodopsin almost immediately converts to lumirhodopsin, which then converts to metarhodopsin, and at this point, the retinal is in its all-trans configuration. All-trans retinal can also be formed from 11-cis-retinaldehyde, also known as 11-cis-retinal, via dehydrogenase/reductase SDR family member 4 or retinol dehydrogenase 12 in the cell, as well as retinol dehydrogenases 8 and 16, short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase 3 or dehydrogenase/reductase SRD family member 9 in the endoplasmic reticulum. Two molecules of retinal can also be formed from beta-carotene, after its interaction with betabeta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase, or from retinol via retinol dehydrogenase 11 in the endoplasmic reticulum. Additionally, 11-cis-retinaldehyde can reversibly form all-trans retinal via interaction with alcohol dehydrogenase 1A. 11-cis-retinaldehyde is also in the conformation found in rhodopsin, and can be used to create more rhodopsin complexes. 11-cis-retinaldehyde can also be converted to 11-cis-retinol by retinol dehydrogenase in the endoplasmic reticulum. Retinol can also isomerize and form 9-cis-retinol, which can then be reversibly oxidized to form 9-cis-retinal by interacting with either retinol dehydrogenase 11 or dehydrogenase/reductase SDR family member 4. 9-cis-retinal can then be further oxidized to 9-cis-retinoic acid by retinal dehydrogenase 1 or 2. 9-cis-retinoic acid can also be formed from the isomerization of all-trans retinoic acid, which in turn is formed by the oxidation of retinol by either of retinal dehydrogenase 1 or 2. All-trans retinoic acid can also be glucuronidated to form retinoyl b-glucuronide, in a reaction catalyzed by a multiprotein chaperone complex including UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1 in the endoplasmic reticulum. Finally, in the endoplasmic reticulum, all-trans-retinoic acid can undergo epoxidation to form all-trans-5,6-epoxyretinoic acid by interaction with a complex of cytochrome P450 proteins, or hydroxylated to either 4-hydroxyretinoic acid or all-trans-18-hydroxyretinoic acid by cytochrome P450 26A1. In one last reqction, 4-hydroxyretinoic acid can be oxidized once again by cytochrome P450 26A1 to form 4-oxo-retinoic acid.


Pw000025 View Pathway

Fructose and Mannose Degradation

Fructose and mannose are monosaccharides that can be found in many foods. Fructose can join with glucose to form sucrose. Mannose can be converted to glucose. Both may be used as food sweeteners. Fructose is well absorbed, especially in the presence of glucose. Fructose causes less of an insulin response compared to glucose and thus may be a preferred sugar for diabetics. In contrast to fructose, humans do not metabolize mannose well with the majority of it being excreted unchanged. Mannose in the urine can be beneficial in treating urinary tract infections caused be E. coli. However, mannose can be detrimental to humans by causing diabetic complications.


Pw000001 View Pathway

Alanine Metabolism

Alanine (L-Alanine) is an α-amino acid that is used for protein biosynthesis. Approximately 8% of human proteins have alanine in their structures. The reductive lamination of pyruvate is effected by alanine transaminase. L-Alanine can be converted to pyruvic acid by alanine aminotransferase 1 reversibly coupled with interconversion of oxoglutaric acid and L-glutamic acid. L-Alanine can also be produced by alanine-glyoxylate transaminase with coupled interconversion of glyoxylate and glycine. L-Alanine will be coupled with alanyl tRNA by alanyl-tRNA synthetase to perform protein biosynthesis. Alanine can also be used to provide energy under fasting conditions. There are two pathways that can facilitate this: (1) alanine is converted to pyruvate to synthesize glucose via the gluconeogenesis pathway in liver tissue or (2) alanine converted into pyruvate moves into the TCA cycle to be oxidized in other tissues.
Showing 61 - 70 of 65005 pathways