Quantitative metabolomics services for biomarker discovery and validation.
Specializing in ready to use metabolomics kits.
Your source for quantitative metabolomics technologies and bioinformatics.

Filter by Pathway Type:



Showing 691 - 700 of 49827 pathways
SMPDB ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins

SMP0000725

Pw000702 View Pathway
Disease

Fructose Intolerance, Hereditary

Hereditary fructose intolerance, also called hereditary fructose-1-phosphate aldolase deficiency or hereditary fructosemia, is rare inborn error of metabolism (IEM) and autosomal recessive disorder of the fructose and mannose degradation pathway. It is caused by a mutation in the ALDOB gene, which encodes fructose-bisphosphatse aldolase B, also known as aldolase B or liver-type aldolase. This enzyme normally cleaves fructose 1,6-bisphosphate into dihydroxyacetone phosphate and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, isomers of one another that are later used in glycolysis. Hereditary fructose intolerance is characterized by an accumulation of fructose-1-phosphate in the liver, as well as a depletion of ATP due to glycolysis having less input than necessary. Symptoms of this disorder include hypoglycemia, abdominal pain and vomiting as well as other symptoms after ingesting fructose. After repeated ingestion of fructose, liver and kidney damage can occur, as well as growth retardation, seizures, and even death. Hereditary fructose intolerance can be treated by eliminating fructose from the diet, and multivitamins can be prescribed to make up for the lack of fruits, a major source of fructose, in the diet. It is estimated that hereditary fructose intolerance affects 1 in between 20,000 and 30,000 individuals.

SMP0000726

Pw000703 View Pathway
Drug Action

Rolitetracycline Action Pathway

Rolitetracycline is a broad spectrum second antibiotic formed by the N-aminomethylation of the carboxamide function of tetracycline. Classified as a second generation tetracycline due to it’s semi-synthesis, rolitetracycline like tetracycline inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit. This prevents tRNA from interacting with the ribosome ultimately halting the addition of amino acids to peptide chains used in protein synthesis.

SMP0000727

Pw000704 View Pathway
Drug Action

Methacycline Action Pathway

Methacycline is a type of tettracycline antibiotic, which can inhibiting the aminoacyl-tRNA bind to mRNA-ribosome complex (16S part of 30S ribosomal subunit). Binding og mRNA-ribosome complex can prevent translation of RNA to protein which result in inhibtion of cell growth.

SMP0000728

Pw000705 View Pathway
Drug Action

Lincomycin Action Pathway

Lincomycin is a lincosamid antibiotic that can effectively aganist aerobic gram-positive cocci, aerobic gram-positive bacilli as well as anaerobic gram-positive sporeforming bacilli in vitro. Lincomycin is derived from yeast Streptomyces lincolnensis. Lincomycin can bind and inhibit 50S subunits of bacterial ribosomes to prevent protein synthesis, which result in cell death.

SMP0000729

Pw000706 View Pathway
Drug Action

Chloramphenicol Action Pathway

Chloramphenicol, trade names Pentamycetin and Chloromycetin, is a broad spectrum antibiotic originally derived from Streptomyces venezuelae. It inhibits protein synthesis by binding the 50S ribosomal subunit to prevent bacterial growth. Bacterial resistance has occurred through decreased uptake or permeability, ribosomal mutation and inactivation by acetylation. Adverse side effects such as aplastic anemia, bone-marrow suppression or Gray syndrome in neonates and infants have resulted in limited use. However, due to ampicillin-resistance bacterial meningitis there has been a renewed interest in the drug.

SMP0000730

Pw000707 View Pathway
Drug Action

Troleandomycin Action Pathway

Troleandomycin, sold as Triocetin and Tekmisin, is a macrolide antibiotic drug. It is similar to erythromycin, the first macrolide discovered, as well as azithromycin and clarithromycin, which were formed from chemically modified erythromycin. As with other macrolides, troleandomycin binds to the bacterial ribosome, preventing ribosomal translation from occurring, as well as preventing amino acids from being added to the protein during protein biosynthesis. This prevents the bacteria from being able to produce potentially vital proteins, and means that the bacteria will likely die. Troleandomycin may inhibit some Cytochrome P450 enzymes, leading to averse effects to other drugs. Troleandomycin is used to treat pneumonia and streptococcal infection, but it is not yet FDA approved and is only currently used in Turkey.

SMP0000731

Pw000708 View Pathway
Drug Action

Josamycin Action Pathway

Josamycin is a macrolide antibiotic that is synthesized from Streptomyces narbonensis which can against various pathogens. Josamycin inhibits protein biosynthesis of bacteria by binding to ribosomal 50S subunit reversibly, which lead to inhibition of translocation of peptidyl tRNA. This action is mainly bacteriostatic, but can also be bactericidal in high concentrations. Macrolides can be accumulated within leukocytes, and transport into infection site later on.

SMP0000732

Pw000709 View Pathway
Drug Metabolism

Temocapril Metabolism Pathway

Temocapril (trade name: Acecol) belongs to the class of drugs known as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and is used primarily to lower high blood pressure (hypertension). This drug can also be used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and type II diabetes. Temocapril is a prodrug which, following oral administration, undergoes biotransformation in vivo into its active form temocaprilat via cleavage of its ester group by the liver. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is a component of the body's renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) and cleaves inactive angiotensin I into the active vasoconstrictor angiotensin II. ACE (or kininase II) also degrades the potent vasodilator bradykinin. Consequently, ACE inhibitors decrease angiotensin II concentrations and increase bradykinin concentrations resulting in blood vessel dilation and thereby lowering blood pressure.

SMP0000733

Pw000710 View Pathway
Drug Action

Temocapril Action Pathway

Temocapril (trade name: Acecol) belongs to the class of drugs known as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and is used primarily to lower high blood pressure (hypertension). This drug can also be used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and type II diabetes. Temocapril is a prodrug which, following oral administration, undergoes biotransformation in vivo into its active form temocaprilat via cleavage of its ester group by the liver. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is a component of the body's renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) and cleaves inactive angiotensin I into the active vasoconstrictor angiotensin II. ACE (or kininase II) also degrades the potent vasodilator bradykinin. Consequently, ACE inhibitors decrease angiotensin II concentrations and increase bradykinin concentrations resulting in blood vessel dilation and thereby lowering blood pressure.

SMP0000734

Pw000711 View Pathway
Drug Action

Roxatidine Acetate Action Pathway

Roxatidine acetate is an anti-ulcer agent, that works through antagonizing the histamine H2 receptor. It is used to reduce abdominal pain, heartburn, acid indigestion and acid reflux. The pathway begins in the stomach, where roxatidine acetate inhibits the histamine H2 receptor on the surface of the parietal cell. Now in the gastric endothelial cell, potassium-transporting ATPase units are inhibited by G-Protein signalling cascade through somatostatin receptor type 4, which is activated by somatostatin. At the same time, potassium-transporting ATPase is activated by the G-protein signalling cascade, through histamine H2 receptor which is inhibited by ranitidine, gastrin/cholecystokinin type B receptor, and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 which are activated by histamine, gastrin and acetylcholine, respectively. The potassium transporting ATPase also converts water and ATP to a phosphate molecule and ADP. Alongside the transporters, potassium is brought into the cell. Carbonic anhydrase 1 uses water and carbon dioxide to create hydrogen carbonate and a hydrogen ion, which are both transported out of the endothelial cell, into the gastric lumen. A chloride ion is transported into the gastric endothelial cell through a chloride anion exchanger and is transported out of the cell through a chloride intracellular channel protein 2, back into the gastric lumen.
Showing 691 - 700 of 49827 pathways