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Showing 81 - 90 of 48700 pathways
SMPDB ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins


Pw000045 View Pathway

Androgen and Estrogen Metabolism

This pathway describes the inactivation and catabolism of male (androgen) and female (estrogen) hormones. Many steroid hormones are transformed by sulfatases, dehydrogenases and glucuronide transferases to enhance their solubility and to facilitate their elimination. Inactivation means to convert an active compound into an inactive compound. Peripheral inactivation, which is inactivation caused by outside enzymes such as liver enzymes for example, is needed to maintain a steady-state level of plasma. This means that if either of these hormones are to be “chemical signals”, their half-life in the bloodstream has to be limited so that a variation in secretion rate can be emulated in the plasma. A large part of inactivation/catabolism occurs in the liver, although a little bit of catabolic activity does happen in the kidneys. Inactive androgens and estrogens are mostly eliminated in the urine. For this to happen, androgen and estrogen need to be converted to compounds that are less hydrophobic so that they are more soluble at higher concentrations. In this pathway, the conversion to a hydrophilic compound is an oxidation of a 17b-hydroxyl group. These hormones are needed for sexual development in both males and females.


Pw000165 View Pathway

Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain

The electron transport chain in mitochondria leads to the transport of hydrogen ions across the inner membrane of the mitochndria, and this proton gradient is eventually used in the production of ATP. Electrons travel down a chain of electron carriers in the inner mitochondrial membrane, ending with oxygen. The outer membrane of the mitochondrion is permeable to ions and other small molecules and nothing in this pathway requires a specific transporter to enter into the intermembrane space. However, the inner membrane is only permeable to water, oxygen and carbon dioxide, and all other molecules, including protons, require transport proteins. Phosphate is able to enter the mitochondrial matrix via the glucose-6-phosphate translocase, and ADP is able to enter the matrix as ATP leaves it via the ADP/ATP translocase 1 protein. Electrons donated by NADH can enter the electron transport chain as NADH dehydrogenase, known as complex I, facilitates their transfer to ubiquinone, also known as coenzyme Q10. As this occurs, the coenzyme Q10 becomes reduced to form ubiquinol, and protons are pumped from the intermembrane space to the matrix. Lower energy electrons can also be donated to complex II, which includes succinate dehydrogenase and contains FAD. These electrons move from succinic acid to the FAD in the enzyme complex, and then to coenzyme Q10, which is reduced to ubiquinol. Throughout this, succinic acid from the citric acid cycle is converted to fumaric acid, which then returns to the citric acid cycle. This step, unlike the others in the electron transport chain, does not result in any protons being pumped from the matrix to the intermembrane space. Regardless of which complex moved the electrons to coenzyme Q10, the cytochrome b-c1 complex, also known as complex III, catalyzes the movement of electrons from ubiquinol to cytochrome c, oxidizing ubiquinol to ubiquinone and reducing cytochrome c. This process also leads to the pumping of hydrogen ions into the intermembrane space. Finally, the transfer of electrons from the reduced cytochrome c is catalyzed by cytochrome c oxidase, also known as complex IV of the electron transport chain. This reaction oxidizes cytochrome c for further electron transport, and transfers the electrons to oxygen, forming molecules of water. This reaction also allows protons to be pumped across the membrane. The proton gradient that is built up through the electron transport chain allows protons to flow through the ATP synthase proteins in the mitochondrial inner membrane, providing the energy required to synthesize ATP from ADP.


Pw000141 View Pathway


Steroidogenesis is a process that through the transformations of other steroids, produces a desired steroid. Some of these desired steroids include cortisol, corticoids, testosterone, estrogens, aldosterone and progesterone. To begin the synthesis of steroid hormones, cholesterol synthesizes a hormone called pregnenolone. This is done by cholesterol from the cytosol or lysosome being brought to the mitochondria and becoming fixed in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Once there, the cholesterol becomes pregnenolone through three reactions. The enzyme responsible for catalyzing all three reactions is CYP11A, a side chain cleavage enzyme. After being created, the pregnenolone enters the cytosol, where the cholesterol originated. Once in the cytosol, pregenolone synthesizes progesterone, using two reactions. These two reactions are both catalyzed by an enzyme called 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase. The enzyme CYP21A2 then hydroxylates progesterone, which converts it to deoxycorticosterone. Deoxycorticosterone then undergoes three reactions catalyzed by CYP11B2 to become aldosterone. 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone is created from pregnenolone by using 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase. CYP21A2 then hydroxylates 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone which results in the production of 11-deoxycortisol. CYP11B1 quickly converts 11-deoxycortisol to cortisol. Cortisol is an active steroid hormone, and its conversion to the inactive cortisone has been known to occur in various tissues, with increased conversion occurring in the liver. Pregnenolone is an important hormone as it is responsible for the beginning of the synthesis of many hormones not pictured in this pathway such as testosterone and estrogen. Cortisol receptors are found in almost every bodily cell, so this hormone affects a wide range of body functions. Some of these functions include metabolism regulation, inflammation reduction, regulating blood sugar levels and blood pressure, and helps with the formation of memories.


Pw000052 View Pathway

Purine Metabolism

Purine is a water soluble, organic compound. Purines, including purines that have been substituted, are the most widely distributed kind of nitrogen-containing heterocycle in nature. The two most important purines are adenine and guanine. Other notable examples are hypoxanthine, xanthine, theobromine, caffeine, uric acid and isoguanine. This pathway depicts a number of processes including purine nucleotide biosynthesis, purine degradation and purine salvage. The main organ where purine nucleotides are created is the liver. This process starts as 5-phospho-α-ribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, or PRPP, and creates inosine 5’-monophosphate, or IMP. Following a series of reactions, PRPP uses compounds such as tetrahydrofolate derivatives, glycine and ATP, and IMP is produced as a result. Glutamine PRPP amidotransferase catalyzes PRPP into 5-phosphoribosylamine, or PRA. 5-phosphoribosylamine is converted to glycinamide ribotide (GAR) then to formyglycinamide ribotide (FGAR). This set of reactions is catalyzed by a trifunctional enzyme containing GAR synthetase, GAR transformylase and AIR synthetase. FGAR is converted to formylglycinamidine-ribonucleotide (FGAM) by formylglycinamide synthase. FGAM is then converted by aminoimidzaole ribotide synthase to 5-aminoimidazole ribotide (AIR) then carboxylated by aminoimidazole ribotide carboxylase to carboxyaminoimidazole ribotide (CAIR). CAIR is then converted tosuccinylaminoimidazole carboxamide ribotide (SAICAR) by succinylaminoimidazole carboxamide ribotide synthase followed by conversion to AICAR (via adenylsuccinate lyase) then to FAICAR (via aminoimidazole carboxamide ribotide transformylase). FAICAR is finally converted to inosine monophosphate (IMP) by IMP cyclohydrolase. Because of the complexity of this synthetic process, the purine ring is actually composed of atoms derived from many different molecules. The N1 atom arises from the amine group of Asp, the C2 and C8 atoms originate from formate, the N3 and N9 atoms come from the amide group of Gln, the C4, C5 and N7 atoms come from Gly and the C6 atom comes from CO2. IMP creates a fork in the road for the creation of purine, as it can either become GMP or AMP. AMP is generated from IMP via adenylsuccinate synthetase (which adds aspartate) and adenylsuccinate lyase. GMP is generated via the action of IMP dehydrogenase and GMP synthase. Purine nucleotides being catabolized creates uric acid. Beginning from AMP, the enzymes AMP deaminase and nucleotidase work in concert to generate inosine. Alternately, AMP may be dephosphorylate by nucleotidase and then adenosine deaminase (ADA) converts the free adenosine to inosine. The enzyme purine nucleotide phosphorylase (PNP) converts inosine to hypoxanthine, while xanthine oxidase converts hypoxanthine to xanthine and finally to uric acid. GMP and XMP can also be converted to uric acid via the action of nucleotidase, PNP, guanine deaminase and xanthine oxidase. Nucleotide creation stemming from the purine bases and purine nucleosides happens in steps that are called the “salvage pathways”. The free purine bases phosphoribosylated and reconverted to their respective nucleotides.


Pw000021 View Pathway

Ethanol Degradation

Ethanol metabolism in humans occurs mainly in the liver, though degradation has also been shown in gastric, pancreatic, and lung tissue. Ethanol degradation occurs via four pathways, three of which are oxidative pathways and are depicted here. The fourth is a nonoxidative pathway which is less well studied but known to produce fatty acid ethyl esters. Each of the three oxidative pathways is differentiated by the mechanism utilized to oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde in the first step. In the alcohol dehydrogenase mediated ethanol degradation pathway (I), cytoplasmic alcohol dehydrogenase produces the acetaldehyde from the ethanol. In the MEOS mediated ethanol degradation pathway (II), the ethanol enters the endoplasmic reticulum, where the Microsomal Ethanol Oxidising System (MEOS), also know as also known as cytochrome P-450 2E1, does the oxidizing and returns the acetaldehyde to the cytoplasm. In the catalase mediated ethanol degradation pathway (III), the oxidation occurs in the peroxisome via peroxisomal catalase, with the resulting acetaldehyde being released to the cytoplasm. In each of the three oxidative pathways the cytosolic acetaldehyde then enters the mitochondrial compartment, where it is converted to acetate by mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase. The acetate leaves the mitochondria and moves to extra-hepatic tissues for further metabolism. In extra-hepatic cells the acetate is converted to acetyl-CoA via either cytoplasmic or mitochondrial acetyl-CoA synthetase. The alcohol dehydrogenase mediated ethanol degradation pathway (I) is the predominant mechanism of catabolism under conditions of acute alcohol consumption. However, under conditions of chronic ethanol consumption the MEOS mediated ethanol degradation pathway (II) and nonoxidative pathway are induced to assist with ethanol degradation.


Pw000040 View Pathway

Sulfate/Sulfite Metabolism

This pathway illustrates the conversion of sulfite to sulfate (via sulfate oxidase) and subsequent generation of adenylylsulfate (APS) via 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate synthase 2. APS is converted to phosphoadenylyl-sulfate (PAPS) via adenylylsulfate kinase. APS can also be regenerated from PAPS by 3'(2'), 5'-bisphosphate nucleotidase 1. PAPS is eventually converted to adenosine bisophosphate (PAP) through the action of several different enzymes including aryl sulfotransferase, chondroitin 4-sulfotransferase 13 and estrone sulfotransferase. The metabolism pathway in question is important for many reasons. Recall, that the sulfite ion is in fact the conjugate base of sulfurous acid. Moreover, this ion is found naturally in one of the worlds most popular beverages, wines. Beyond its natural occurence, sulfite ion had the property of stopping fermentation. As such, the addition of it to products such as wine can be used either as a preservative or to stop the fermentation process at a moment which is of interest. Finally, this preservation property goes beyond merely wines, and finds utility in dried fruits, potatoes, etc.


Pw000019 View Pathway

D-Arginine and D-Ornithine Metabolism

D-Amino acids have been show to be present in high concentrations in humans and play a role in biological functions. D-Amino may have negative effects as they can be found in some bacteria or form spontaneously in certain reactions. D-Amino acid oxidase (DAAO) is one of the main enzymes that metabolize D-Amino acids via deamination. DAAO is highly specific towards D-amino acids and favours free neutral D-amino acids or those with hydrophobic, polar or aromatic groups. Acidic amino acids are not catalyze by DAOO.


Pw000158 View Pathway

Porphyrin Metabolism

This pathway depicts the synthesis and breakdown of porphyrin. The porphyrin ring is the framework for the heme molecule, the pigment in hemoglobin and red blood cells. The first reaction in porphyrin ring biosynthesis takes place in the mitochondria and involves the condensation of glycine and succinyl-CoA by delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase (ALAS). Delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is also called 5-aminolevulinic acid. Following its synthesis, ALA is transported into the cytosol, where ALA dehydratase (also called porphobilinogen synthase) dimerizes 2 molecules of ALA to produce porphobilinogen. The next step in the pathway involves the condensation of 4 molecules of porphobilinogen to produce hydroxymethylbilane (also known as HMB). The enzyme that catalyzes this condensation is known as porphobilinogen deaminase (PBG deaminase). This enzyme is also called hydroxymethylbilane synthase or uroporphyrinogen I synthase. Hydroxymethylbilane (HMB) has two main fates. Most frequently it is enzymatically converted into uroporphyrinogen III, the next intermediate on the path to heme. This step is mediated by two enzymes: uroporphyrinogen synthase and uroporphyrinogen III cosynthase. Hydroxymethylbilane can also be non-enzymatically cyclized to form uroporphyrinogen I. In the cytosol, the uroporphyrinogens (uroporphyrinogen III or uroporphyrinogen I) are decarboxylated by the enzyme uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase. These new products have methyl groups in place of the original acetate groups and are known as coproporphyrinogens. Coproporphyrinogen III is the most important intermediate in heme synthesis. Coproporphyrinogen III is transported back from the cytosol into the interior of the mitochondria, where two propionate residues are decarboxylated (via coproporphyrinogen-III oxidase), which results in vinyl substituents on the 2 pyrrole rings. The resulting product is called protoporphyrinogen IX. The protoporphyrinogen IX is then converted into protoporphyrin IX by another enzyme called protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase. The final reaction in heme synthesis also takes place within the mitochondria and involves the insertion of the iron atom into the ring system generating the molecule known heme b. The enzyme catalyzing this reaction is known as ferrochelatase. The largest repository of heme in the body is in red blood cells (RBCs). RBCs have a life span of about 120 days. When the RBCs have reached the end of their useful lifespan, the cells are engulfed by macrophages and their constituents recycled or disposed of. Heme is broken down when the heme ring is opened by the enzyme known as heme oxygenase, which is found in the endoplasmic reticulum of the macrophages. The oxidation process produces the linear tetrapyrrole biliverdin, ferric iron (Fe3+), and carbon monoxide (CO). The carbon monoxide (which is toxic) is eventually discharged through the lungs. In the next reaction, a second methylene group (located between rings III and IV of the porphyrin ring) is reduced by the enzyme known as biliverdin reductase, producing bilirubin. Bilirubin is significantly less extensively conjugated than biliverdin. This reduction causes a change in the colour of the molecule from blue-green (biliverdin) to yellow-red (bilirubin). In hepatocytes, bilirubin-UDP-glucuronyltransferase (bilirubin-UGT) adds two additional glucuronic acid molecules to bilirubin to produce the more water-soluble version of the molecule known as bilirubin diglucuronide. In most individuals, intestinal bilirubin is acted on by the gut bacteria to produce the final porphyrin products, urobilinogens and stercobilins. These are excreted in the feces. The stercobilins oxidize to form brownish pigments which lead to the characteristic brown colour found in normal feces. Some of the urobilinogen produced by the gut bacteria is reabsorbed and re-enters the circulation. These urobilinogens are converted into urobilins that are then excreted in the urine which cause the yellowish colour in urine.


Pw000007 View Pathway

Selenoamino Acid Metabolism

Phospholipids are membrane components in P. aeruginosa. The major phospholipids of P. aeruginosa are phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and cardiolipin. All phospholipids contain sn-glycerol-3-phosphate esterified with fatty acids at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions. The reaction starts from a glycerone phosphate (dihydroxyacetone phosphate) produced in glycolysis. The glycerone phosphate is transformed into an sn-glycerol 3-phosphate (glycerol 3 phosphate) by NADPH-driven glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. sn-Glycerol 3-phosphate is transformed to a 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate (lysophosphatidic acid). This can be achieved by an sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase that interacts either with a long-chain acyl-CoA or with an acyl-[acp]. The 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate is transformed into a 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate (phosphatidic acid) through a 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase. This compound is then converted into a CPD-diacylglycerol through a CTP phosphatidate cytididyltransferase. CPD-diacylglycerol can be transformed either into an L-1-phosphatidylserine or an L-1-phosphatidylglycerol-phosphate through a phosphatidylserine synthase or a phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthase, respectively. The L-1-phosphatidylserine transforms into L-1-phosphatidylethanolamine through a phosphatidylserine decarboxylase. On the other hand, L-1-phosphatidylglycerol-phosphate gets transformed into an L-1-phosphatidyl-glycerol through a phosphatidylglycerophosphatase. These 2 products combine to produce a cardiolipin and an ethanolamine. The L-1 phosphatidyl-glycerol can also interact with cardiolipin synthase resulting in a glycerol and a cardiolipin.


Pw000160 View Pathway

Pyrimidine Metabolism

A group of heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, pyrimidines are similar in structure to benzene and pyridine and count the nucleic acids cytosine, thymine, and uracil as structural derivatives. The following pathway illustrates a many pyrimidine-associated processes such as nucleotide biosynthesis, degradation, and salvage. This pathway depicts a number of pyrimidine-related processes such as nucleotide biosynthesis, degradation, and salvage. For pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis, carbamoyl phosphate derived from the action of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II (CPS-II) on glutamine and bicarbonate is converted into carbamoyl aspartate by aspartate transcarbamoylase, ATCase. Dihydroorotic acid is subsequently generated by the action of carbamoyl aspartate dehydrogenase on carbamoyl aspartate. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase then converts dihydroorotic acid to orotic acid. From this point, orotate phosphoribosyltransferase incorporates phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate into (PRPP) to produce orotidine monophosphate. Orotidine-5’-phosphate carboxylase subsequently converts orotidine monophosphate into uridine monophosphate (UMP). UMP is further phosphorylated twice to form UTP; the first instance by uridylate kinase and the second instance by ubiquitous nucleoside diphosphate kinase. UTP moves into the CTP synthesis pathway with the action of CTP synthase which aminates the molecule. The uridine nucleotides are also feedstock for the de novo thymine nucleotides synthesis pathway. DeoxyUMP which is derived from UDP or CDP metabolism is transformed by the action of thymidylate synthase into deoxyTMP of which the methyl group is sourced from N5,N10-methylene THF. THF is subsequently regenerated from DHF via dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) which is essential for the continuation of thymidylate synthase activity. Serine hydroxymethyl transferase then acts on THF to regenerate N5,N10-THF. Pyrimidine synthesis is a comparatively simpler process than purine synthesis due to a couple of factors; pyrimidine ring structure is assembled as a free base rather being derived from PRPP and there is no branch in the pyrimidine synthesis pathway as opposed to the purine synthesis pathway. For thymidine, the action of thymidine kinase on it (or alternatively deoxyuridine) plays an important role in what is referred to as the salvage pathway to dTTP synthesis. However to form dTMP, the action of thymine phosphorylase and thymidine kinase is required. For deoxycytidine, deoxycytidine kinase is required (deoxycytidine also acts on deoxyadenosine and deoxyguanosine). For uracil, UMP can be formed by the action of uridine phosphorylase and uridine kinase on uracil. Pyrimidine catabolism ultimately results in the formation of the waste products of urea, H2O, and CO2. The product of cytosine breakdown, uracil, can be broken down to N-carbamoyl-β-alanine which can be catabolized into β-alanine. The product of thymine breakdown is β-aminoisobutyrate. The transamination of α-ketoglutarate to glutamate requires both of these breakdown products (β-alanine and β-aminoisobutyrate) to act as amine group donors. The products of this transamination can move through a further reaction that produces malonyl-CoA or methylmalonyl-CoA, a precursor for succinyl-CoA which is used in the Krebs cycle.
Showing 81 - 90 of 48700 pathways