Pathways

PathWhiz ID Pathway Meta Data

PW122313

Pw122313 View Pathway
metabolic

try

Escherichia coli (strain K12)

PW122312

Pw122312 View Pathway
metabolic

Biosynthesis of siderophore group nonribosomal peptide

Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus t26
Siderophores are an important group of structurally diverse natural products that play key roles in ferric iron acquisition in most microorganisms. Two major pathways exist for siderophore biosynthesis. One is dependent on nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) multienzymes. The enzymology of several NRPS-dependent pathways to structurally diverse siderophores has been intensively studied for more than 10 years and is generally well understood. The other major pathway is NRPS-independent. It relies on a novel family of synthetase enzymes that until recently has received very little attention.

PW122311

Pw122311 View Pathway
metabolic

Beta-oxidation

Homo sapiens

PW122309

Pw122309 View Pathway
disease

Malaria Pathways

Plasmodium falciparum

PW122300

Pw122300 View Pathway
drug action

Etodolac Action Action Pathway Xuan

Homo sapiens

PW122298

Pw122298 View Pathway
drug action

Acetylsalicylic Acid Action Action Pathway Xuan

Homo sapiens

PW122297

Pw122297 View Pathway
physiological

Pancreas Function - Delta cell

Homo sapiens
Pancreatic delta cells produce somatostatin. Somatostatin functions to inhibit glucagon, insulin and itself. Somatostatin is stored in granules in the delta cell and is released in the presence of glucose and calcium. Somatostatin might prevent excess section of insulin and glucagon. Glucose enters the cell and undergoes glycolysis in the mitochondria causing an increase of ATP in the cell. ATP inhibits potassium ATP channels causing a depolarization of the membrane and opening of voltage dependent calcium channels. Calcium concentration in the cell increases and triggers the exocytosis of somatostatin granules from the delta cell.

PW122296

Pw122296 View Pathway
physiological

Pancreas Function - Alpha cell

Homo sapiens
Alpha cells are a type of islet cell found in the pancreas that release glucagon. Glucagon counteracts insulin and functions to maintain glucose homeostasis. Glucagon is contained in granules in the cell as a reserve ready to be released. Extracellular glucose levels and ion channels regulate the secretion of glucagon. When glucose is low or absent glucagon is released. Glucose undergoes glycolysis to increase ATP in the cell. The moderate activity of potassium ATP channels causes the membrane potential to be around -60mV. The alpha cell then becomes electrically active due to the closure of potassium channels. The cell membrane becomes depolarized due to voltage dependent sodium, potassium and calcium channels. This causes an increase in action potentials and opens voltage gate calcium channels causing an increase of calcium into the cell. This triggers the exocytosis of glucagon from the cell. An increase in extracellular glucose leads to an increase in ATP production and inhibition of potassium ATP channels. The membrane depolarizes to a membrane potential that inactivates voltage dependent calcium channels. This results in decreased intracellular calcium and inhibits exocytosis of glucagon.

PW122293

Pw122293 View Pathway
metabolic

Trypto

Homo sapiens
Generally KP is a major degradative pathway that occurs in the liver, which synthesizes NAD+ from tryptophan (TRP). TRP acts as a precursor, in the central nervous system to several metabolic pathways, such as synthesis of kynurenine (KYN), serotonin, melatonin (Ruddick et al., 2006). The rate-limiting step in KP is the indole ring opening which is catalysed either by indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenases (IDO-1) or tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO). The expression of IDO-1 and TDO is observed in different tissues and they are exposed to different stimuli, proposing that they have distinct functions in health and disease. The enzymes of KP are produced in many cell types and tissues which were significantly seen with the abundance of subsequent metabolites such as NAD+ and its reduced forms NADH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate)), pellagra-preventing factor, niacin or vitamin B3, PA (picolinic acid), NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor agonist QUIN (quinolinic acid) and antagonist KYNA (kynurenic acid), 3-HK (3-hydroxykynurenine) and 3-HAA (3-hydroxyanthranilic acid) (Badawy., 2017). TRP is converted to N′-formylkynurenine (NFK) either by TDO in liver or by IDO-1 extrahepatically. KYN is synthesized from NFK by the enzyme NFK formamidase (FAM). In the pathway, catalytic activity showing hydroxylation of KYN to 3-HK by KYN hydroxylase (KMO) followed by 3-HK hydrolysis to 3-HAA by kynureninase is noted. Kynureninase can also hydrolyze KYN to anthranilic acid (AA) while kynurenine aminotransferases (I, II, III) (KATs) desaminate KYN to KYNA (Sas et al., 2018). In the main catabolic pathway, along with 3-HAA, 2-amino-3-carboxymuconoate semialdehyde is produced. This semialdehyde latter process to form QUIN or decarboxylated to PA. QUIN is further metabolised by quinolinic acid phosphoribosyl transferase (QPRT) to niacin and consequently to NAD+

PW122292

Pw122292 View Pathway
metabolic

Tryptophan

Homo sapiens
Generally KP is a major degradative pathway that occurs in the liver, which synthesizes NAD+ from tryptophan (TRP). TRP acts as a precursor, in the central nervous system to several metabolic pathways, such as synthesis of kynurenine (KYN), serotonin, melatonin (Ruddick et al., 2006). The rate-limiting step in KP is the indole ring opening which is catalysed either by indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenases (IDO-1) or tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO). The expression of IDO-1 and TDO is observed in different tissues and they are exposed to different stimuli, proposing that they have distinct functions in health and disease. The enzymes of KP are produced in many cell types and tissues which were significantly seen with the abundance of subsequent metabolites such as NAD+ and its reduced forms NADH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate)), pellagra-preventing factor, niacin or vitamin B3, PA (picolinic acid), NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor agonist QUIN (quinolinic acid) and antagonist KYNA (kynurenic acid), 3-HK (3-hydroxykynurenine) and 3-HAA (3-hydroxyanthranilic acid) (Badawy., 2017). TRP is converted to N′-formylkynurenine (NFK) either by TDO in liver or by IDO-1 extrahepatically. KYN is synthesized from NFK by the enzyme NFK formamidase (FAM). In the pathway, catalytic activity showing hydroxylation of KYN to 3-HK by KYN hydroxylase (KMO) followed by 3-HK hydrolysis to 3-HAA by kynureninase is noted. Kynureninase can also hydrolyze KYN to anthranilic acid (AA) while kynurenine aminotransferases (I, II, III) (KATs) desaminate KYN to KYNA (Sas et al., 2018). In the main catabolic pathway, along with 3-HAA, 2-amino-3-carboxymuconoate semialdehyde is produced. This semialdehyde latter process to form QUIN or decarboxylated to PA. QUIN is further metabolised by quinolinic acid phosphoribosyl transferase (QPRT) to niacin and consequently to NAD+