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Pathways

Showing 21 - 30 of 61345 pathways
SMPDB ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins

SMP00720

Pw000697 View Pathway
disease

27-Hydroxylase Deficiency

Homo sapiens
Sterol 27-hydroxylase, a mitochondrial cytochrome P450, together with 2 protein cofactors, adrenodoxin and adrenodoxin reductase, hydroxylates a variety of sterols at the C27 position. In the bile acid synthesis pathway, sterol 27-hydroxylase catalyzes the first step in the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates (summary by Cali and Russell, 1991). Defects in the gene lead to reduced bile acid biosynthesis, with accumulation of 7 alpha-hydroxylated intermediates and decrease of Cholesterol.

SMP00718

Pw000695 View Pathway
disease

3-Beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Deficiency

Homo sapiens
3-beta (β)-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) deficiency is an inherited disorder that affects hormone-producing glands including the gonads (ovaries in females and testes in males) and the adrenal glands.Mutations in the HSD3B2 gene cause 3β-HSD deficiency. The HSD3B2 gene provides instructions for making the 3β-HSD enzyme. This enzyme is found in the gonads and adrenal glands. The 3β-HSD enzyme is involved in the production of many hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, androgens, and estrogen. Cortisol has numerous functions such as maintaining energy and blood sugar levels, protecting the body from stress, and suppressing inflammation.

SMP00138

Pw000063 View Pathway
disease

3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Lyase Deficiency

Homo sapiens
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase deficiency (3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acidemia; Leucine metabolism, defect in, HMG-CoA lyase deficiency) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by a mutation in the HMGCL gene which codes for hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA lyase. A deficiency in this enzyme results in accumulation of 3-hydroxymethylglutaric acid, 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid, 3-methylcrotonylglycine and 3-methylglutaconic acid (cis and trans form), and methylglutaric acid in urine; and ammonia in blood. Symptoms include cardiomyopathy, dehydration, hypotonia, lactic acidosis, and pancreatitis. Treatment includes a low-fat, low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet.

SMP00521

Pw000497 View Pathway
disease

3-hydroxyisobutyric acid dehydrogenase deficiency

Homo sapiens
3-Hydroxyisobutyric aciduria (3-hydroxyisobutyric acid dehydrogenase deficiency) is a rare entity and affected individuals display a range of clinical manifestations including dysmorphic features and neurodevelopmental problems in the majority of patients.

SMP00522

Pw000498 View Pathway
disease

3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria

Homo sapiens
3-Hydroxyisobutyric aciduria, a disorder of valine metabolism, has been found in a boy in whom the clinical picture was that of a typical organic acidemia with repeated episodes of ketoacidosis requiring admission to hospital and parenteral fluid therapy, along with impressive failure to thrive and chronic lactic acidemia. The excretion of 3-hydroxyisobutyric acid ranged from 170 to 390 mmol/mol of creatinine. The administration of valine increased this to 18,700 mmol/mol of creatinine and reproduced the clinical picture of ketoacidosis. Concentrations of free carnitine were low, and esterified carnitine was elevated. Treatment with carnitine and a diet restricted in protein appeared to be beneficial.

SMP00237

Pw000065 View Pathway
disease

3-Methylcrotonyl Coa Carboxylase Deficiency Type I

Homo sapiens
3-Methylcrotonyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase Deficiency Type I (3-MCC Deficiency; MCCD Type I; Methylcrotonylglycinuria Type I; 3-Methylcrotonylglycinuria I) is caused by a defect in the MCCC1 and MCCC2 genes. 3-methylcrotonyl-coenzyme A carboxylase plays an essential role in breaking down proteins from the diet. Specifically, the enzyme is responsible for the fourth step in processing leucine. If a mutation in the MCCC1 or MCCC2 gene reduces or eliminates the activity of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase, the body is unable to process leucine properly. As a result, toxic byproducts of leucine processing build up to harmful levels, damaging the brain and nervous system. Symptoms include recurring episodes of vomiting and diarrhea, lethargy, hypotonia, seizures, and coma.

SMP00139

Pw000066 View Pathway
disease

3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type I

Homo sapiens
3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type 1 (3-Methylglutaconicaciduria; Aciduria, 3-methylglutaconic type I) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by a mutation in the AUH gene which codes for methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase. A deficiency in this enzyme results in accumulation of 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid, 3-methylglutaconic acid, and methylglutaric acid in urine. Symptoms include hypoglycemia, low birth weight, coma, seizures, and mental retardation. Treatment includes a low protein diet.

SMP00140

Pw000067 View Pathway
disease

3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type III

Homo sapiens
3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type 3 (Costeff syndrome; Optic atrophy plus syndrome) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by a deficiency in the OPA3 code which does for optic atrophy 3 protein. A deficiency of this enzyme results in accumulation of 3-methylglutaconic acid and methylglutaric acid. Symptoms include ataxia, dysarthria, optic atrophy, and neurological deterioration.

SMP00141

Pw000214 View Pathway
disease

3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type IV

Homo sapiens
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type IV (MGA, Type IV; MGA4) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by a mutation in an unknown gene. This disease results in an accumulation of cis and trans 3-methylglutaconic acid. Symptoms include, anemia, hyperammonemia, mental retardation, optic atrophy, hypotonia and early death.

SMP00679

Pw000656 View Pathway
drug action

3-Methylthiofentanyl Action Pathway

Homo sapiens
Methadyl Acetate exerts its analgesic by acting on the opioid receptors of sensory neurons. Binding to the opioid receptor activates associated G(i) proteins. These subsequently act to inhibit adenylate cyclase, reducing the level of intracellular cAMP. G(i) also activates potassium channels and inactivates calcium channels causing the neuron to hyperpolarize. The end result is decreased nerve conduction and reduced neurotransmitter release, which blocks the perception of pain signals.
Showing 21 - 30 of 61345 pathways