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Showing 48681 - 48690 of 48704 pathways
SMPDB ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins

SMP0000322

Pw000447 View Pathway
Protein

Vasopressin Regulation of Water Homeostasis

The vasopressin V2 receptor is found in the kidneys. It serves a role in maintaining corporal water homeostasis. Malfunction of this receptor can lead to Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus. Vasopressin (aka Antidiuretic hormone) activates both follicle-stimulating hormone receptor as well as the V2 receptor G protein complex. From this complex, Guanine nucleotide binding protein G(s) protein reacts with Adenylate Cyclase Type 2, Adeonsine Triphosphate, as well as GTP and magnesium to produce cAMP and Pyrophosphate. cAMP then activates PKA (protein kinase A) which leads to changes in the concentration of water in urine.

SMP0000421

Pw000237 View Pathway
Drug Action

Vatalanib Action Pathway

Vatalanib is an anti-VEGFR molecule in the treatment of cancer. Cancer cells tend to overexpress VEGF, which stimulates angiogenesis, facilitating cancer growth and metastasis. The majority of VEGF’s effects are mediated through its binding to the VEGFR-2 receptor on endothelial cell surfaces. Upon binding, the receptor autophosphorylates and initiates a signalling cascade, starting with the activation of CSK. CSK phosphorylates Raf-1, which subsequently phosphorylates MAP kinase kinase, which phosphorylates MAP kinase. The activated MAP kinase enters the nucleus and stimulates the expression of angiogenic factors resulting in increased cell proliferation, migration, permeability, invasion, and survival. Binding of VEGF to VEGFR-2 also activates phospholipase C PIP2 into DAG and IP3. DAG may be involved in the activation of Raf-1 leading to angiogenesis, while IP3 activates PI3K and triggers calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum. This ultimately leads to the activation of nitric oxide synthase and the production of nitric oxide, which stimulates vasodilation and increases vascular permeability. In cancer, VEGF has also been shown to bind to the VEGFR-1 receptor. However, its effects on angiogenesis are unclear at the moment. There are some evidence to show that VEGFR-1 may cross-talk with VEGFR-2 and initiate the signalling cascades described above. Vatalanib exerts its effect by binding to intracellular tyrosine kinase domain of VEGFR-2 and preventing receptor autophosphorylation and activation of downstream pathways, resulting in suppression of angiogenesis.

SMP0000636

Pw000612 View Pathway
Drug Metabolism

Venlafaxine Metabolism Pathway

Venlafaxine (also named as Effexor or Elafax) is an antidepressant medication, which belongs to the class of serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI). Venlafaxine is well absorbed into the circulation system. Venlafaxine is also metabolized to N-desmethylvenlafaxine. The N-demethylation is catalyzed by CYP3A4 and CYP2C19. N-desmethylvenlafaxine is a weaker serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. Both O-desmethylvenlafaxine (as potent a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) and N-desmethylvenlafaxine are further metabolized by CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and/or CYP3A4 to a minor metabolite N,O-didesmethylvenlafaxine that is further metabolized into N,N,O-tridesmethylvenlafaxine or excreted as N,O-didesmethylvenlafaxine gucuronide. Later on, O-desmethylvenlafaxine is exported without any change in chemical structure. Venlafaxine is exported via two transporters: Multidrug resistance protein 1 and ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2.

SMP0000375

Pw000390 View Pathway
Drug Action

Verapamil Action Pathway

Verapamil is a phenylalkylamine calcium channel blocker (CCB) or antagonist. There are at least five different types of calcium channels in Homo sapiens: L-, N-, P/Q-, R- and T-type. CCBs target L-type calcium channels, the major channel in muscle cells that mediates contraction. Verapamil, an organic cation, is thought to primarily block L-type calcium channels in their open state by interfering with the binding of calcium ions to the extracellular opening of the channel. It is one of only two clinically used CCBs that are cardioselective. Verapamil and diltiazem and, the other cardioselective CCB, shows greater activity against cardiac calcium channels than those of the peripheral vasculature. Other CCBs, such as nifedipine and amlodipine, have little to no effect on cardiac cells (cardiac myocytes and cells of the SA and AV nodes). Due to its cardioselective properties, verapamil may be used to treat arrhythmias (e.g. atrial fibrillation) as well as hypertension. The first part of this pathway depicts the pharmacological action of verapamil on cardiac myocytes and peripheral arterioles and coronary arteries. Verapamil decreases cardiac myocyte contractility by inhibiting the influx of calcium ions. Calcium ions entering the cell through L-type calcium channels bind to calmodulin. Calcium-bound calmodulin then binds to and activates myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). Activated MLCK catalyzes the phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain subunit of myosin, a key step in muscle contraction. Signal amplification is achieved by calcium-induced calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum through ryanodine receptors. Inhibition of the initial influx of calcium decreases the contractile activity of cardiac myocytes and results in an overall decreased force of contraction by the heart. Verapamil affects smooth muscle contraction and subsequent vasoconstriction in peripheral arterioles and coronary arteries by the same mechanism. Decreased cardiac contractility and vasodilation lower blood pressure. The second part of this pathway illustrates the effect of calcium channel antagonism on the cardiac action potentials. Contractile activity of cardiac myocytes is elicited via action potentials mediated by a number of ion channel proteins. During rest, or diastole, cells maintain a negative membrane potential; i.e. the inside of the cell is negatively charged relative to the cellsŠ—È extracellular environment. Membrane ion pumps, such as the sodium-potassium ATPase and sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX), maintain low intracellular sodium (5 mM) and calcium (100 nM) concentrations and high intracellular potassium (140 mM) concentrations. Conversely, extracellular concentrations of sodium (140 mM) and calcium (1.8 mM) are relatively high and extracellular potassium concentrations are low (5 mM). At rest, the cardiac cell membrane is impermeable to sodium and calcium ions, but is permeable to potassium ions via inward rectifier potassium channels (I-K1), which allow an outward flow of potassium ions down their concentration gradient. The positive outflow of potassium ions aids in maintaining the negative intracellular electric potential. When cells reach a critical threshold potential, voltage-gated sodium channels (I-Na) open and the rapid influx of positive sodium ions into the cell occurs as the ions travel down their electrochemical gradient. This is known as the rapid depolarization or upstroke phase of the cardiac action potential. Sodium channels then close and rapidly activated potassium channels such as the voltage-gated transient outward delayed rectifying potassium channel (I-Kto) and the voltage-gated ultra rapid delayed rectifying potassium channel (I-Kur) open. These events make up the early repolarization phase during which potassium ions flow out of the cell and sodium ions are continually pumped out. During the next phase, known as the plateau phase, calcium L-type channels (I-CaL) open and the resulting influx of calcium ions roughly balances the outward flow of potassium channels. During the final repolarization phase, the voltage-gated rapid (I-Kr) and slow (I-Ks) delayed rectifying potassium channels open increasing the outflow of potassium ions and repolarizing the cell. The extra sodium and calcium ions that entered the cell during the action potential are extruded via sodium-potassium ATPases and NCX and intra- and extracellular ion concentrations are restored. In specialized pacemaker cells, gradual depolarization to threshold occurs via funny channels (I-f). Blocking L-type calcium channels decreases conduction and increases the refractory period. VerapamilŠ—Ès effects on pacemaker cells enable its use as a rate-controlling agent in atrial fibrillation.

SMP0000540

Pw000516 View Pathway
Disease

Very-Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (VLCAD)

Very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is a condition that prevents the body from converting certain fats to energy, particularly during periods without food (fasting). Signs and symptoms of VLCAD deficiency typically appear during infancy or early childhood and can include low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), lack of energy (lethargy), and muscle weakness. Affected individuals are also at risk for serious complications such as liver abnormalities and life-threatening heart problems. When symptoms begin in adolescence or adulthood, they tend to be milder and usually do not involve the heart. Problems related to VLCAD deficiency can be triggered by periods of fasting, illness, and exercise. This disorder is sometimes mistaken for Reye syndrome, a severe disorder that may develop in children while they appear to be recovering from viral infections such as chicken pox or flu. Most cases of Reye syndrome are associated with the use of aspirin during these viral infections.

SMP0000436

Pw000241 View Pathway
Drug Action

Vinblastine Action Pathway

Vinblastine (also named Velban) is a natural alkaloid isolated from the leaves of the Catharanthus roseus (commonly known as the Madagascar periwinkle). Vinblastine are used as chemotherapy medication such as an antimitotic anticancer agent. The mechanism of vinblastine is the inhibition of microtubule dynamics that would cause mitotic arrest and eventual cell death. As a microtubule destabilizing agent, Vinblastine stimulates mitotic spindle destruction and microtubule depolymerization at high concentrations. At lower clinically relevant concentrations, vinblastine can block mitotic progression. Unlike the taxanes, which bind poorly to soluble tubulin, vinblastine can bind both soluble and microtubule-associated tubulin. To be able stabilizing the kinetics of microtule, vinblastine rapidly and reversibly bind to soluble tubulin which can increase the affinity of tublin by the induction of conformational changes of tubulin. Vinblastine binds to β-tubulin subunits at the positive end of microtubules at a region called the _Vinca_-binding domain. Binding between vinblastine and solubale tubulin decreases the rate of microtubule dynamics (lengthening and shortening) and increases the duration of attenuated state of microtubules. Therefore, the proper assembly of the mitotic spindle could be prevented; and the tension at the kinetochores of the chromosomes could be reduced. Subsequently, chromosomes can not progress to the spindle equator at the spindle poles. Progression from metaphase to anaphase is blocked and cells enter a state of mitotic arrest. The cells may then undergo one of several fates. The tetraploid cell may undergo unequal cell division producing aneuploid daughter cells. Alternatively, it may exit the cell cycle without undergoing cell division, a process termed mitotic slippage or adaptation. These cells may continue progressing through the cell cycle as tetraploid cells (Adaptation I), may exit G1 phase and undergo apoptosis or senescence (Adaption II), or may escape to G1 and undergo apoptosis during interphase (Adaptation III). Another possibility is cell death during mitotic arrest. Alternatively, mitotic catastrophe may occur and cause cell death. Vinca alkaloids are also thought to increase apoptosis by increasing concentrations of p53 (cellular tumor antigen p53) and p21 (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1) and by inhibiting Bcl-2 activity. Increasing concentrations of p53 and p21 lead to changes in protein kinase activity. Phosphorylation of Bcl-2 subsequently inhibits the formation Bcl-2-BAX heterodimers. This results in decreased anti-apoptotic activity. One way in which cells have developed resistance against the vinca alkaloids is by drug efflux. Drug efflux is mediated by a number of multidrug resistant transporters as depicted in this pathway.

SMP0000437

Pw000242 View Pathway
Drug Action

Vincristine Action Pathway

Vincristine (also named leurocristine) is a natural alkaloid isolated from the leaves of the Catharanthus roseus (commonly known as the Madagascar periwinkle). Vincristine are used as chemotherapy medication such as an antimitotic anticancer agent. The mechanism of vincristine is the inhibition of microtubule dynamics that would cause mitotic arrest and eventual cell death. As a microtubule destabilizing agent, Vincristine stimulates mitotic spindle destruction and microtubule depolymerization at high concentrations. At lower clinically relevant concentrations, vincristine can block mitotic progression. Unlike the taxanes, which bind poorly to soluble tubulin, vincristine can bind both soluble and microtubule-associated tubulin. To be able stabilizing the kinetics of microtule, vincristine rapidly and reversibly bind to soluble tubulin which can increase the affinity of tublin by the induction of conformational changes of tubulin. Vincristine binds to β-tubulin subunits at the positive end of microtubules at a region called the _Vinca_-binding domain. Binding between vincristine and solubale tubulin decreases the rate of microtubule dynamics (lengthening and shortening) and increases the duration of attenuated state of microtubules. Therefore, the proper assembly of the mitotic spindle could be prevented; and the tension at the kinetochores of the chromosomes could be reduced. Subsequently, chromosomes can not progress to the spindle equator at the spindle poles. Progression from metaphase to anaphase is blocked and cells enter a state of mitotic arrest. The cells may then undergo one of several fates. The tetraploid cell may undergo unequal cell division producing aneuploid daughter cells. Alternatively, it may exit the cell cycle without undergoing cell division, a process termed mitotic slippage or adaptation. These cells may continue progressing through the cell cycle as tetraploid cells (Adaptation I), may exit G1 phase and undergo apoptosis or senescence (Adaption II), or may escape to G1 and undergo apoptosis during interphase (Adaptation III). Another possibility is cell death during mitotic arrest. Alternatively, mitotic catastrophe may occur and cause cell death. Vinca alkaloids are also thought to increase apoptosis by increasing concentrations of p53 (cellular tumor antigen p53) and p21 (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1) and by inhibiting Bcl-2 activity. Increasing concentrations of p53 and p21 lead to changes in protein kinase activity. Phosphorylation of Bcl-2 subsequently inhibits the formation Bcl-2-BAX heterodimers. This results in decreased anti-apoptotic activity. One way in which cells have developed resistance against the vinca alkaloids is by drug efflux. Drug efflux is mediated by a number of multidrug resistant transporters as depicted in this pathway.

SMP0000438

Pw000243 View Pathway
Drug Action

Vindesine Action Pathway

Vindesine (also named Eldesine) is a semisynthetic vinca alkaloid. Vindesine are used as chemotherapy medication such as an antimitotic anticancer agent. The mechanism of vindesine is the inhibition of microtubule dynamics that would cause mitotic arrest and eventual cell death. As a microtubule destabilizing agent, vindesine stimulates mitotic spindle destruction and microtubule depolymerization at high concentrations. At lower clinically relevant concentrations, vindesine can block mitotic progression. Unlike the taxanes, which bind poorly to soluble tubulin, vindesine can bind both soluble and microtubule-associated tubulin. To be able stabilizing the kinetics of microtule, vindesine rapidly and reversibly bind to soluble tubulin which can increase the affinity of tublin by the induction of conformational changes of tubulin. Vindesine binds to β-tubulin subunits at the positive end of microtubules at a region called the _Vinca_-binding domain. Binding between vindesine and solubale tubulin decreases the rate of microtubule dynamics (lengthening and shortening) and increases the duration of attenuated state of microtubules. Therefore, the proper assembly of the mitotic spindle could be prevented; and the tension at the kinetochores of the chromosomes could be reduced. Subsequently, chromosomes can not progress to the spindle equator at the spindle poles. Progression from metaphase to anaphase is blocked and cells enter a state of mitotic arrest. The cells may then undergo one of several fates. The tetraploid cell may undergo unequal cell division producing aneuploid daughter cells. Alternatively, it may exit the cell cycle without undergoing cell division, a process termed mitotic slippage or adaptation. These cells may continue progressing through the cell cycle as tetraploid cells (Adaptation I), may exit G1 phase and undergo apoptosis or senescence (Adaption II), or may escape to G1 and undergo apoptosis during interphase (Adaptation III). Another possibility is cell death during mitotic arrest. Alternatively, mitotic catastrophe may occur and cause cell death. Vinca alkaloids are also thought to increase apoptosis by increasing concentrations of p53 (cellular tumor antigen p53) and p21 (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1) and by inhibiting Bcl-2 activity. Increasing concentrations of p53 and p21 lead to changes in protein kinase activity. Phosphorylation of Bcl-2 subsequently inhibits the formation Bcl-2-BAX heterodimers. This results in decreased anti-apoptotic activity. One way in which cells have developed resistance against the vinca alkaloids is by drug efflux. Drug efflux is mediated by a number of multidrug resistant transporters as depicted in this pathway.

SMP0000439

Pw000244 View Pathway
Drug Action

Vinorelbine Action Pathway

Vinorelbine (also named Navelbine) is a semisynthetic vinca alkaloid. Vinorelbine are used as chemotherapy medication such as an antimitotic anticancer agent. The mechanism of vinorelbine is the inhibition of microtubule dynamics that would cause mitotic arrest and eventual cell death. As a microtubule destabilizing agent, vinorelbine stimulates mitotic spindle destruction and microtubule depolymerization at high concentrations. At lower clinically relevant concentrations, vinorelbine can block mitotic progression. Unlike the taxanes, which bind poorly to soluble tubulin, vinorelbine can bind both soluble and microtubule-associated tubulin. To be able stabilizing the kinetics of microtule, vinorelbine rapidly and reversibly bind to soluble tubulin which can increase the affinity of tublin by the induction of conformational changes of tubulin. Vinorelbine binds to β-tubulin subunits at the positive end of microtubules at a region called the _Vinca_-binding domain. Binding between vinorelbine and solubale tubulin decreases the rate of microtubule dynamics (lengthening and shortening) and increases the duration of attenuated state of microtubules. Therefore, the proper assembly of the mitotic spindle could be prevented; and the tension at the kinetochores of the chromosomes could be reduced. Subsequently, chromosomes can not progress to the spindle equator at the spindle poles. Progression from metaphase to anaphase is blocked and cells enter a state of mitotic arrest. The cells may then undergo one of several fates. The tetraploid cell may undergo unequal cell division producing aneuploid daughter cells. Alternatively, it may exit the cell cycle without undergoing cell division, a process termed mitotic slippage or adaptation. These cells may continue progressing through the cell cycle as tetraploid cells (Adaptation I), may exit G1 phase and undergo apoptosis or senescence (Adaption II), or may escape to G1 and undergo apoptosis during interphase (Adaptation III). Another possibility is cell death during mitotic arrest. Alternatively, mitotic catastrophe may occur and cause cell death. Vinca alkaloids are also thought to increase apoptosis by increasing concentrations of p53 (cellular tumor antigen p53) and p21 (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1) and by inhibiting Bcl-2 activity. Increasing concentrations of p53 and p21 lead to changes in protein kinase activity. Phosphorylation of Bcl-2 subsequently inhibits the formation Bcl-2-BAX heterodimers. This results in decreased anti-apoptotic activity. One way in which cells have developed resistance against the vinca alkaloids is by drug efflux. Drug efflux is mediated by a number of multidrug resistant transporters as depicted in this pathway.

SMP0000336

Pw000210 View Pathway
Disease

Vitamin A Deficiency

Vitamin A deficiency can be caused by many causes. A defect in the BCMO1 gene which codes for beta,beta-carotene 15,15’-monooxygenase is one of them. Beta,beta-carotene 15,15’-monooxygenase catalyzes the chemical reaction where the two substrates are beta-carotene and O2, whereas its product is retinal. A defect in this enzyme results in decrease of levels of retinal and vitamin A in serum; Signs and symptoms include night blindness, poor adaptation to darkness, dry skin and hair.
Showing 48681 - 48690 of 48704 pathways