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Glutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2 AMPA AMPA Gamma- aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1 Gamma- aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2 Gamma- aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2 Sodium channel protein type 10 subunit alpha Sodium channel subunit beta-1 Voltage- dependent P/Q-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1A Voltage- dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-1 Voltage- dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-2 Vesicular glutamate transporter 1 Glutaminase Glutamate decarboxylase 2 Topiramate Glutamate γ-Aminobutyric acid Topiramate Ca+ Glutamate Cl- Na+ Na+ Cl- Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Glutamate Ca+ L-Glutamine H2O Ammonium γ-Aminobutyric acid CO2 Hyperpolarization Depolarization Depolarization Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate Presynaptic neuron Post-synaptic neuron Topiramate inhibits voltage gated sodium channels in the presynaptic neurons, preventing depolarization Topiramate stimulates GABA-A receptor activity on the post-synaptic neuron, leading to increased chloride influx into the neuron causing hyperpolarzation Topiramate inhibits excitatory glutamate receptors like AMPA and kainate receptors on the post-synaptic neuron, preventing the influx of sodium ions, thus preventing depolarization The release of excitatory neurotransmitters are inhibited
GRIK2 GRIA1 GRIA2 GABRA1 GABRB2 GABRG2 SCN10A SCN1B CACNA1A CACNB1 CACNA2D2 SLC17A7 GLS GAD2 Topiramate Glutamate γ-Aminobutyric acid Topiramate Calcium Glutamate Chloride ion Sodium Sodium Chloride ion Sodium Sodium Sodium Sodium Glutamate Calcium L-Glutamine Water Ammonium γ-Aminobutyric acid Carbon dioxide Hyperpolarization Depolarization Depolarization
GRIK2 GRIA1 GRIA2 GABRA1 GABRB2 GABRG2 SCN10A SCN1B CACNA1A CACNB1 CACNA2D2 SLC17A7 GLS GAD2 Tpm Gluta GABA Tpm Ca+ Gluta Cl- Na+ Na+ Cl- Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Gluta Ca+ Gln H2O Ammon GABA CO2 Hyper Depol Depol Pyr-5'P Presynaptic neuron Post-synaptic neuron Topiramate inhibits voltage gated sodium channels in the presynaptic neurons, preventing depolarization Topiramate stimulates GABA-A receptor activity on the post-synaptic neuron, leading to increased chloride influx into the neuron causing hyperpolarzation Topiramate inhibits excitatory glutamate receptors like AMPA and kainate receptors on the post-synaptic neuron, preventing the influx of sodium ions, thus preventing depolarization The release of excitatory neurotransmitters are inhibited