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Beta-endorphin N-type calcium channel potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily J Adenylate cyclase type 2 GABAA receptor Gamma- aminobutyric acid type B receptor Mu-type opioid receptor γ-Aminobutyric acid Naloxone cAMP Ca+ Ca+ Na+ Na+ γ-Aminobutyric acid Naloxone Naloxone ATP PPi GTP Pain Guanine nucleotide- binding protein G(i) subunit alpha-1 Magnesium More GABA leads to inhibition of dopamine cell firing in the spinal cord pain transmission neurons, as well as the inhibition of dopamine cell firing in the reward system of the brain. Increased calcium levels lead to increased neurotransmitter release. GABA is released by synaptic vesicles. Naloxone prevents the gamma subunit of the mu opioid receptor from inhibiting the N-type calcium channels on the neuron. This allows calcium to enter the neuron and depolarize. The inhibition of Mu-type opioid receptors prevents the Gi subunit of the mu opioid receptor from activating the outward rectifying sodium channel. This prevents hyperpolarization Post-Synaptic Neuron Pre-Synaptic Neuron Synapse Cytosol Synaptic Vesicle With the mu opioid receptor unable to inhibit adenylate cyclase, it is able to synthesize cAMP which increases the excitability in spinal cord pain transmission neurons. Diffusion
Unknown CACNB1 KCNJ9 ADCY2 GABRG2 GABBR1 OPRM1 GNB1 GNG2 γ-Aminobutyric acid Naloxone cAMP Calcium Calcium Sodium Sodium γ-Aminobutyric acid Naloxone Naloxone Adenosine triphosphate Pyrophosphate Guanosine triphosphate Pain GNAI1