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Gq protein signaling cascade Phospholipase C Inositol 1,4,5- trisphosphate receptor type 1 Protein kinase C alpha type Voltage- dependent P/Q-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1A Voltage- dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-1 Voltage- dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-2 Myosin light chain kinase, smooth muscle Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1 Myosin LC-P Myosin light chain 3 Voltage- dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1B Voltage- dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-2 Voltage- dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-4 Voltage- dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-1 Vesicular acetylcholine transporter High affinity choline transporter 1 Choline O- acetyltransferase Acetylcholinesterase Calmodulin-1 Myosin light chain phosphatase Calmodulin-1 Ca+ Acetylcholine Acetylcholine Procyclidine Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate Ca+ Acetylcholine Choline Choline Ca+ Ca+ Ca+ Procyclidine Procyclidine Acetyl-CoA Choline CoA H2O Acetic acid Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate Calcium Ca+ Diacylglycerol Muscle Contraction Muscle Relaxation Magnesium Calcium Magnesium Manganese Presynaptic neuron Acetylcholine is synthesized and stored in synaptic vesicles at the nerve terminal Calcium ions stimulates the release of neurotransmitter acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft via exocytosis Acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft activates muscarinic receptors on the post-synaptic membrane Acetylcholine is broken down by acetylcholinesterase into choline and acetyl-coa Choline is taken back up into the nerve terminal and recycled to create more acetylcholine By blocking the activation of the M1 receptor, it causes inhibition of smooth muscle contraction via Gq protein cascade signalling having an antispasmodic effect Procyclidine is a M1 antagonist, blocking the action of acetylcholine. Synaptic Vesicle Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Myosin unbinds from actin causing muscle relaxation Decreased calcium is unable to bind readily to calmodulin so it does not activate myosin light chain kinase There is an overall decrease in calcium levels in the cytosol caused by the inhibition of the Gq signaling cascade Cytosol Smooth Muscle Myocyte Actin Myosin Procyclidine is administered as an oral tablet
GNAQ PLCB1 ITPR1 PRKCA CACNA1A CACNB1 CACNA2D2 MYLK CHRM1 MYL3 MYL3 CACNA1B CACNA2D2 CACNB4 CACNB1 SLC18A3 SLC5A7 CHAT ACHE CALM1 PPP1CB CALM1 Calcium Acetylcholine Acetylcholine Procyclidine Inositol 1,4,5- trisphosphate Calcium Acetylcholine Choline Choline Calcium Calcium Calcium Procyclidine Procyclidine Acetyl-CoA Choline Coenzyme A Water Acetic acid Phosphatidylinositol 4,5- bisphosphate Calcium Diacylglycerol Muscle Contraction Muscle Relaxation