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D(2) dopamine receptor Voltage- dependent P/Q-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1A Voltage- dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-1 Voltage- dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-2 Sodium- dependent dopamine transporter Synaptic vesicular amine transporter Aromatic-L- amino-acid decarboxylase Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase Dopamine Ca+ Paliperidone Ca+ Dopamine Dopamine Paliperidone Paliperidone L-Dopa CO2 L-Tyrosine Tetrahydrobiopterin O2 Dihydrobiopterin H2O Na+ Na+ Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate Gi signaling cascade Fe2+ Cytosol Postsynaptic Neuron Presynaptic Neuron Cytosol Synaptic Vesicle Synapse Paliperidone is an active metabolite of risperidone and a D2 receptor antagonist. ↓ Positive, negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia Excess dopamine in the brain triggers positive symptoms of schizophrenia Brain Mesolimbic pathway Blood vessel - blood brain barrier Passive Diffusion Paliperidone is taken orally and absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract
DRD2 CACNA1A CACNB1 CACNA2D2 SLC6A3 SLC18A2 DDC TH Dopamine Calcium Paliperidone Calcium Dopamine Dopamine Paliperidone Paliperidone L-Dopa Carbon dioxide L-Tyrosine Tetrahydrobiopterin Oxygen Dihydrobiopterin Water Sodium Sodium Gi signaling cascade
DRD2 CACNA1A CACNB1 CACNA2D2 SLC6A3 SLC18A2 DDC TH LDP Ca+ Invega Ca+ LDP LDP Invega Invega L-Dopa CO2 Tyr BH4 O2 BH3 H2O Na+ Na+ Pyr-5'P Gi si c Fe2+ Cytosol Postsynaptic Neuron Presynaptic Neuron Cytosol Synaptic Vesicle Synapse Paliperidone is an active metabolite of risperidone and a D2 receptor antagonist. ↓ Positive, negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia Excess dopamine in the brain triggers positive symptoms of schizophrenia Brain Mesolimbic pathway Blood vessel - blood brain barrier Passive Diffusion Paliperidone is taken orally and absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract
DRD2