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Adenylate cyclase type 10 Myosin light chain kinase, smooth muscle PKA complex PKA complex Protein kinase C 5- hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A Myosin LC-P Myosin light chain 3 Inositol 1,4,5- trisphosphate receptor type 1 Voltage- dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-1 Voltage- dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C Myosin light chain phosphatase Calmodulin Intermediate conductance calcium- activated potassium channel protein 4 Phospholipase C ATP-binding cassette sub-family C member 8 ATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 8 ATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 11 ATP-binding cassette sub-family C member 9 Calmodulin Voltage- dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-1 Alverine Ca+ Ca+ K+ K+ Ca+ K+ K+ Alverine ATP cAMP Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate Diacylglycerol Pi Pi Pi Pi Calcium Ca+ Muscle Contraction Muscle Relaxation G protein signalling cascade Magnesium Calcium Manganese Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Cytosol Stomach Smooth Muscle Cell Activated PKA can phosphorylate calcium activated potassium channels causing potassium efflux and promoting hyperpolarization. Activated PKA phosphorylates the IP3 receptor to reduce its affinity for IP3. Activated PKA phosphorylates phospholipase C. There is an overall decrease in calcium levels in the cytosol. Decreased calcium is unable to bind readily to calmodulin. The inhibition of myosin light chain kinase prevents the synthesis of Myosin LC-P which leads to a high concentration of myosin light chain and muscle relaxation. Myosin unbinds from actin causing the sarcomere filaments to slide resulting in muscle relaxation. Activates ATP-sensitive potassium channels via cAMP mediated phosphorylation. Actin Filament Myosin Filament Since the receptor isn't activated, adenylyl cyclase is no longer inhibited allowing for cAMP production 5HT 1A receptors activate Gi protein signalling which inhibits adenylyl cyclase Alverine is a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. It acts on the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract and uterus Alverine is administered as an oral tablet. Blood vessel prevention of muscle spasms which occur in the gut in conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome and diverticular disease.
ADCY10 MYLK PRKAR1A PRKAR2A PRKCA HTR1A MYL3 MYL3 ITPR1 CACNB1 CACNA1C PPP1CB CALM1 KCNN4 PLCB1 ABCC8 KCNJ8 KCNJ11 Unknown CALM1 CACNA2D1 Alverine Calcium Calcium Potassium Potassium Calcium Potassium Potassium Alverine Adenosine triphosphate cAMP Inositol 1,4,5- trisphosphate Phosphatidylinositol 4,5- bisphosphate Diacylglycerol Phosphate Phosphate Phosphate Phosphate Calcium Muscle Contraction Muscle Relaxation G protein signalling cascade