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Showing 48671 - 48680 of 48700 pathways
SMPDB ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins


Pw000188 View Pathway

UMP Synthase Deficiency (Orotic Aciduria)

Orotic aciduria, also known as UMP synthase deficiency, is an autosomal recessive disorder of pyrimidine metabolism caused by a defective uridine monophosphate synthetase (UMPS). UMPS is a multifunctional protein which carries out the functions of both orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT) and orotidine 5'-phosphate decarboxylase (ODC). UMPS catalyzes the conversion of orotic acid into uridine monophosphate (UMP) which is a nucleotide incorporated into ribonucleic acid (RNA). This disease is characterized by a very large accumulation of orotic acid in the urine, occasionally causing urinary obstruction. Symptoms of the disease include megaloblastic anemia as well as retarded growth and development.


Pw000162 View Pathway

Urea Cycle

Urea, also known as carbamide, is a waste product made by a large variety of living organisms and is the main component of urine. Urea is created in the liver, through a string of reactions that are called the Urea Cycle. This cycle is also called the Ornithine Cycle, as well as the Krebs-Henseleit Cycle. There are some essential compounds required for the completion of this cycle, such as arginine, citrulline and ornithine. Arginine cleaves and creates urea and ornithine, and the reactions that follow see urea residue build up on ornithine, which recreates arginine and keeps the cycle going. Ornithine is transported to the mitochondrial matrix, and once there, ornithine carbamoyltransferase uses carbamoyl phosphate to create citrulline. After this, citrulline is transported to the cytosol. Once here, citrulline and aspartate team up to create argininosuccinic acid. After this, argininosuccinate lyase creates l-arginine. L-arginine finally uses arginase-1 to create ornithine again, which will be transported to the mitochondrial matrix and restart the urea cycle once more.


Pw000306 View Pathway
Drug Action

Urokinase Action Pathway

Urokinase is an enzyme that is part of the thrombolytics drug class, used to dissolve or break down blood clots. Urokinase activates plasminogen. Then zooming in even further to the endoplasmic reticulum within the liver, vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide uses vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 to become reduced vitamin K (phylloquinone), and then back to vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide continually through vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylase. This enzyme also catalyzes precursors of prothrombin and coagulation factors VII, IX and X to prothrombin, and coagulation factors VII, IX and X. From there, these precursors and factors leave the liver cell and enter into the blood capillary bed. Once there, prothrombin is catalyzed into the protein complex prothrombinase complex which is made up of coagulation factor Xa/coagulation factor Va (platelet factor 3). These factors are joined by coagulation factor V. Through the two factors coagulation factor Xa and coagulation factor Va, thrombin is produced, which then uses fibrinogen alpha, beta, and gamma chains to create fibrin (loose). This is then turned into coagulation factor XIIIa, which is activated through coagulation factor XIII A and B chains. From here, fibrin (mesh) is produced which interacts with endothelial cells to cause coagulation. Plasmin is then created from fibrin (mesh), then joined by tissue-type plasminogen activator (urokinase) through plasminogen, and creates fibrin degradation products. These are enzymes that stay in your blood after your body has dissolved a blood clot. Coming back to the factors transported from the liver, coagulation factor X is catalyzed into a group of enzymes called the tenase complex: coagulation factor IX and coagulation factor VIIIa (platelet factor 3). This protein complex is also contributed to by coagulation factor VIII, which through prothrombin is catalyzed into coagulation factor VIIIa. From there, this protein complex is catalyzed into prothrombinase complex, the group of proteins mentioned above, contributing to the above process ending in fibrin degradation products. Another enzyme transported from the liver is coagulation factor IX which becomes coagulation factor IXa, part of the tense complex, through coagulation factor XIa. Coagulation factor XIa is produced through coagulation factor XIIa which converts coagulation XI to become coagulation factor XIa. Coagulation factor XIIa is introduced through chain of activation starting in the endothelial cell with collagen alpha-1 (I) chain, which paired with coagulation factor XII activates coagulation factor XIIa. It is also activated through plasma prekallikrein and coagulation factor XIIa which activate plasma kallikrein, which then pairs with coagulation factor XII simultaneously with the previous collagen chain pairing to activate coagulation XIIa. Lastly, the previously transported coagulation factor VII and tissue factor coming from a vascular injury work together to activate tissue factor: coagulation factor VIIa. This enzyme helps coagulation factor X catalyze into coagulation factor Xa, to contribute to the prothrombinase complex and complete the pathway.


Pw000277 View Pathway
Drug Action

Valdecoxib Action Pathway

Valdecoxib, a selective prostaglandin G/H synthase 2 (better known as cyclooxygenase-2 or COX-2) inhibitor, is classified as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Valdecoxib was used for its anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects in the management of osteoarthritis and for the treatment of dysmenorrhea or acute pain. Unlike celecoxib, valdecoxib lacks a sulfonamide chain and does not require CYP450 enzymes for metabolism. Both COX-1 and COX-2 catalyze the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin G2 (PGG2) and PGG2 to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2). PGH2 is the precursor of a number of prostaglandins, including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) and thomboxane A2 (TxA2). Valdecoxib selectively inhibits the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme, a key enzyme in the production of PGE2. PGE2 is a potent mediator of pain, inflammation and fever. The first part of this figure depicts the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic pathway of valdecoxib. The latter portion of this figure depicts valdecoxib’s potential involvement in platelet aggregation. Prostaglandin synthesis varies across different tissue types. Platelets, anuclear cells derived from fragmentation from megakaryocytes, contain COX-1, but not COX-2. COX-1 activity in platelets is required for thromboxane A2 (TxA2)-mediated platelet aggregation. Platelet activation and coagulation do not normally occur in intact blood vessels. After blood vessel injury, platelets adhere to the subendothelial collagen at the site of injury. Activation of collagen receptors initiates phospholipase C (PLC)-mediated signaling cascades resulting in the release of intracellular calcium from the dense tubula system. The increase in intracellular calcium activates kinases required for morphological change, transition to procoagulant surface, secretion of granular contents, activation of glycoproteins, and the activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Activation of PLA2 results in the liberation of arachidonic acid, a precursor to prostaglandin synthesis, from membrane phospholipids. The accumulation of TxA2, ADP and thrombin mediates further platelet recruitment and signal amplification. TxA2 and ADP stimulate their respective G-protein coupled receptors, thomboxane A2 receptor and P2Y purinoreceptor 12, and inhibit the production of cAMP via adenylate cyclase inhibition. This counteracts the adenylate cyclase stimulatory effects of the platelet aggregation inhibitor, PGI2, produced by neighbouring endothelial cells. Platelet adhesion, cytoskeletal remodeling, granular secretion and signal amplification are independent processes that lead to the activation of the fibrinogen receptor. Fibrinogen receptor activation exposes fibrinogen binding sites and allows platelet cross-linking and aggregation to occur. Neighbouring endothelial cells found in blood vessels express both COX-1 and COX-2. COX-2 in endothelial cells mediates the synthesis of PGI2, an effective platelet aggregation inhibitor and vasodilator, while COX-1 mediates vasoconstriction and stimulates platelet aggregation. PGI2 produced by endothelial cells encounters platelets in the blood stream and binds to the G-protein coupled prostacyclin receptor. This causes G-protein mediated activation of adenylate cyclase, which catalyzes the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic AMP (cAMP). Four cAMP molecules then bind to the regulatory subunits of the inactive cAMP-dependent protein kinase holoenzyme causing dissociation of the regulatory subunits and leaving two active catalytic subunit monomers. The active subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalyze the phosphorylation of a number of proteins. Phosphorylation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) inhibits the release of calcium from the ER. This in turn inhibits the calcium-dependent events, including PLA2 activation, involved in platelet activation and aggregation. Inhibition of PLA2 decreases intracellular TxA2 and inhibits the platelet aggregation pathway. cAMP-dependent kinase also phosphorylates the actin-associated protein, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein. Phosphorylation inhibits protein activity, which includes cytoskeleton reorganization and platelet activation. Valdexocib preferentially inhibits COX-2 with little activity against COX-1. COX-2 inhibition in endothelial cells decreases the production of PGI2 and the ability of these cells to inhibit platelet aggregation and stimulate vasodilation. These effects are thought to be responsible for the rare, but severe, adverse cardiovascular effects observed with rofecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor which was subsequently been withdrawn from the market. Valdexocib was withdrawn from the Canadian, U.S. and E.U. markets in 2005 due to concerns of possible increased risk of heart attack and stroke.


Pw000051 View Pathway

Valine, Leucine, and Isoleucine Degradation

Valine, isoleuciine, and leucine are essential amino acids and are identified as the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). The catabolism of all three amino acids starts in muscle and yields NADH and FADH2 which can be utilized for ATP generation. The catabolism of all three of these amino acids uses the same enzymes in the first two steps. The first step in each case is a transamination using a single BCAA aminotransferase, with α-ketoglutarate as the amine acceptor. As a result, three different α-keto acids are produced and are oxidized using a common branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD), yielding the three different CoA derivatives. Isovaleryl-CoA is produced from leucine by these two reactions, alpha-methylbutyryl-CoA from isoleucine, and isobutyryl-CoA from valine. These acyl-CoA’s undergo dehydrogenation, catalyzed by three different but related enzymes, and the breakdown pathways then diverge. Leucine is ultimately converted into acetyl-CoA and acetoacetate; isoleucine into acetyl-CoA and succinyl-CoA; and valine into propionyl-CoA (and subsequently succinyl-CoA). Under fasting conditions, substantial amounts of all three amino acids are generated by protein breakdown. In muscle, the final products of leucine, isoleucine, and valine catabolism can be fully oxidized via the citric acid cycle; in the liver, they can be directed toward the synthesis of ketone bodies (acetoacetate and acetyl-CoA) and glucose (succinyl-CoA). Because isoleucine catabolism terminates with the production of acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA, it is both glucogenic and ketogenic. Because leucine gives rise to acetyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA, it is classified as strictly ketogenic.


Pw000611 View Pathway
Drug Metabolism

Valproic Acid Metabolism Pathway

Valproic acid (VPA) is metabolized almost entirely in the liver, via at least there routes: glucuronidation, beta oxidation in the mitochondria, and cytochrome P450 mediated oxidation. The glucuronidation of VPA is mediated by UGT1A3, UGT1A4, UGT1A6, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, UGT1A10, UGT2B7 and UGT2B15. The key CYP-mediated reaction of the VPA metabolic pathway is the generation of 4-ene-VPA by CYP2C9, CYP2A6 and CYP2B6. These three enzymes also catalyze the formation of 4-OH-VPA and 5-OH-VPA. Moreover, CYP2A6 mediates the oxidation of VPA to 3-OH-VPA. Inside the mitochondria, the first step of oxidation is the formation of (VPA-CoA) catalyzed by medium-chain acyl-CoA synthase, followed by the conversion to 2-ene-VPA-CoA through 2-methyl-branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADSB). 2-ene-VPA-CoA is further converted to 3-hydroxyl-valproyl-VPA (3-OH-VPA-CoA) by an enoyl-CoA hydratase, crotonase (ECSH1) and then 3-OH-VPA-CoA is metabolized to 3-keto-valproyl-CoA (3-oxo-VPA-CoA) through the action of 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase. Another route of VPA metabolism in the mitochondria includes the conversion of 4-ene-VPA to 4-ene-VPA-CoA ester catalyzed by ACADSB, followed by a beta-oxidation to form 2,4-diene-VPA-CoA ester. The latter metabolite can furthermore be conjugated to glutathione to form thiol metabolites.


Pw000285 View Pathway
Drug Action

Valsartan Action Pathway

Valsartan (also named Diovan) is an antagonist of angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs). Valsartan competes with angiotensin II to bind type-1 angiotensin II receptor (AT1) in many tissues (e.g. vascular smooth muscle, the adrenal glands, etc.) to prevent increasing sodium, water reabsorption and peripheral resistance (that will lead to increasing blood pressure) via aldosterone secretion that is caused by angiotensin II. Therefore, action of valsartan binding to AT1 will result in decreasing blood pressure. For more information on the effects of aldosterone on electrolyte and water excretion, refer to the description of the \spironolactone\:http://pathman.smpdb.ca/pathways/SMP00134/pathway or \triamterene\:http://pathman.smpdb.ca/pathways/SMP00132/pathway pathway, which describes the mechanism of direct aldosterone antagonists. Valsartan is an effective agent for reducing blood pressure and may be used to treat essential hypertension and heart failure.


Pw000447 View Pathway

Vasopressin Regulation of Water Homeostasis

The vasopressin V2 receptor is found in the kidneys. It serves a role in maintaining corporal water homeostasis. Malfunction of this receptor can lead to Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus. Vasopressin (aka Antidiuretic hormone) activates both follicle-stimulating hormone receptor as well as the V2 receptor G protein complex. From this complex, Guanine nucleotide binding protein G(s) protein reacts with Adenylate Cyclase Type 2, Adeonsine Triphosphate, as well as GTP and magnesium to produce cAMP and Pyrophosphate. cAMP then activates PKA (protein kinase A) which leads to changes in the concentration of water in urine.


Pw000237 View Pathway
Drug Action

Vatalanib Action Pathway

Vatalanib is an anti-VEGFR molecule in the treatment of cancer. Cancer cells tend to overexpress VEGF, which stimulates angiogenesis, facilitating cancer growth and metastasis. The majority of VEGF’s effects are mediated through its binding to the VEGFR-2 receptor on endothelial cell surfaces. Upon binding, the receptor autophosphorylates and initiates a signalling cascade, starting with the activation of CSK. CSK phosphorylates Raf-1, which subsequently phosphorylates MAP kinase kinase, which phosphorylates MAP kinase. The activated MAP kinase enters the nucleus and stimulates the expression of angiogenic factors resulting in increased cell proliferation, migration, permeability, invasion, and survival. Binding of VEGF to VEGFR-2 also activates phospholipase C PIP2 into DAG and IP3. DAG may be involved in the activation of Raf-1 leading to angiogenesis, while IP3 activates PI3K and triggers calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum. This ultimately leads to the activation of nitric oxide synthase and the production of nitric oxide, which stimulates vasodilation and increases vascular permeability. In cancer, VEGF has also been shown to bind to the VEGFR-1 receptor. However, its effects on angiogenesis are unclear at the moment. There are some evidence to show that VEGFR-1 may cross-talk with VEGFR-2 and initiate the signalling cascades described above. Vatalanib exerts its effect by binding to intracellular tyrosine kinase domain of VEGFR-2 and preventing receptor autophosphorylation and activation of downstream pathways, resulting in suppression of angiogenesis.


Pw000612 View Pathway
Drug Metabolism

Venlafaxine Metabolism Pathway

Venlafaxine (also named as Effexor or Elafax) is an antidepressant medication, which belongs to the class of serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI). Venlafaxine is well absorbed into the circulation system. Venlafaxine is also metabolized to N-desmethylvenlafaxine. The N-demethylation is catalyzed by CYP3A4 and CYP2C19. N-desmethylvenlafaxine is a weaker serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. Both O-desmethylvenlafaxine (as potent a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) and N-desmethylvenlafaxine are further metabolized by CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and/or CYP3A4 to a minor metabolite N,O-didesmethylvenlafaxine that is further metabolized into N,N,O-tridesmethylvenlafaxine or excreted as N,O-didesmethylvenlafaxine gucuronide. Later on, O-desmethylvenlafaxine is exported without any change in chemical structure. Venlafaxine is exported via two transporters: Multidrug resistance protein 1 and ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2.
Showing 48671 - 48680 of 48700 pathways