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Showing 11 - 20 of 49833 pathways
SMPDB ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins


Pw000004 View Pathway

Glutathione Metabolism

Glutathione (GSH) is an low-molecular-weight thiol and antioxidant in various species such as plants, mammals and microbes. Glutathione plays important roles in nutrient metabolism, gene expression, etc. and sufficient protein nutrition is important for maintenance of GSH homeostasis. Glutathione is synthesized from glutamate, cysteine, and glycine sequentially by gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and GSH synthetase. L-Glutamic acid and cysteine are synthesized to form gamma-glutamylcysteine by glutamate-cysteine ligase that is powered by ATP. Gamma-glutamylcysteine and glycine can be synthesized to form glutathione by enzyme glutathione synthetase that is powered by ATP, too. Glutathione exists oxidized (GSSG) states and in reduced (GSH) state. Oxidation of glutathione happens due to relatively high concentration of glutathione within cells.


Pw000016 View Pathway

Carnitine Synthesis

Carnitine is an ammonium compound that exists in two stereoisomers, of which only L-carnitine is biologically active. Carnitine can be obtained from dietary sources and also biosynthesized. It is necessary for fatty acid oxidation, transporting fatty acids from the cystosol to the mitochondria, where they are broken down via the citric acid cycle to release energy. Carnitine is synthesized from lysine residues in existing proteins. These residues are methylated using lysine methyltransferase enzymes and methyl groups from S-adenosylmethionine, then removed from the protein via hydrolysis. In the next step, the N6,N6,N6-trimethyl-L-lysine is converted to 3-hydroxy-N6,N6,N6-trimethyl-L-lysine t via the mitochondrial enzyme trimethyllysine dioxygenase. The 3-hydroxy-N6,N6,N6-trimethyl-L-lysine is then cleaved to 4-trimethylammoniobutanal and glycine, likely by an aldose identical to serine hydroxymethyltransferase. Next, 4-trimethylammoniobutanal is oxidized by the 4-trimethylaminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase protein to 4-trimethylammoniobutanoic acid. Finally, 4-trimethylammoniobutanoic acid is transformed into L-carnitine via the enzyme gamma-butyrobetaine dioxygenase. The reactions in the carnitine synthesis pathway occur ubiquitously in the human body with the exception of the last step, as the gamma-butyrobetaine dioxygenase enzyme is found only in the liver and kidney (and at very low levels in the brain). The produced carnitine is then carried to other tissue via a number of transport systems.


Pw000054 View Pathway

Pyruvate Metabolism

Pyruvate is an intermediate compound in the metabolism of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. It can be formed from glucose via glycolysis or the transamination of alanine. It can be converted into Acetyl-CoA to be used as the primary energy source for the TCA cycle, or converted into oxaloacetate to replenish TCA cycle intermediates. Pyruvate can also be used to synthesize carbohydrates, fatty acids, ketone bodies, alanine, and steroids. In conditions of inssuficient oxygen or in cells with few mitochondria, pyruvate is reduced to lactate in order to re-oxidize NADH back into NAD+ Pyruvate participates in several key reactions and pathways. In glycolysis, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) is converted to pyruvate by pyruvate kinase in an highly exergonic and irreversible reaction. In gluconeogenesis, pyruvate carboxylase and PEP carboxykinase are needed to catalyze the conversion of pyruvate to PEP. In fatty acid synthesis, the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex decarboxylates pyruvate to produce acetyl-CoA. In gluconeogenesis, the carboxylation by pyruvate carboxylase produces oxaloacetate. The fate of pyruvate depends on the cell energy charge. In cells or tissues with a high energy charge pyruvate is directed toward gluconeogenesis, but when the energy charge is low pyruvate is preferentially oxidized to CO2 and H2O in the TCA cycle, with generation of 15 equivalents of ATP per pyruvate. The enzymatic activities of the TCA cycle are located in the mitochondrion. When transported into the mitochondrion, pyruvate encounters two principal metabolizing enzymes: pyruvate carboxylase (a gluconeogenic enzyme) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH). With a high cell-energy charge, acetyl-CoA, is able allosterically to activate pyruvate carboxylase, directing pyruvate toward gluconeogenesis. When the energy charge is low CoA is not acylated, pyruvate carboxylase is inactive, and pyruvate is preferentially metabolized via the PDH complex and the enzymes of the TCA cycle to CO2 and H2O.


Pw031290 View Pathway

Androstenedione Metabolism

Androstenedione is an endogenous weak androgen steroid hormone that is a precursor of testosterone and other androgens, as well as of estrogens like estrone . Its metabolism occurs primarily in the endoplasmic reticulum (membrane-associated enzymes are coloured dark green in the image). Conversion of androstenedione to testosterone requires the enzyme testosterone 17-beta-dehydrogenase 3. Conversion of androstenedione to estrone involves three successive reactions catalyzed by the enzyme aromatase (cytochrome P450 19A1). Androstenedione can also be converted into etiocholanolone glucuronide, androsterone glucuronide, and adrenosterone. The three-reaction subpathway to synthesize etiocholanolone glucuronide begins with the enzyme 3-oxo-5-beta-steroid 4-dehydrogenase catalyzing the conversion of androstenedione to etiocholanedione. This is followed by the conversion of etiocholanedione to etiocholanolone which is catalyzed by aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C4. Lastly, the large membrane-associated multimer UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1 catalyzes the conversion of etiocholanolone to etiocholanolone glucuronide. The three-reaction subpathway to synthesize androsterone glucuronide begins with the conversion of androstenedione to androstanedione via 3-oxo-5-alpha-steroid 4-dehydrogenase 1. Anstrostanedione is then converted into androsterone via aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C4. The last reaction to form androsterone glucuronide is catalyzed by the large multimer UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1. The two-reaction subpathway to synthesize adrenosterone begins in the mitochondrial inner membrane where androstenedione is first converted into 11beta-hydroxyandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione by the enzyme cytochrome P450 11B1. Following transport to the endoplasmic reticulum, 11beta-hydroxyandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione is converted into adrenosterone via corticosteroid 11-beta-dehydrogenase isozyme 1.


Pw000162 View Pathway

Urea Cycle

Urea, also known as carbamide, is a waste product made by a large variety of living organisms and is the main component of urine. Urea is created in the liver, through a string of reactions that are called the Urea Cycle. This cycle is also called the Ornithine Cycle, as well as the Krebs-Henseleit Cycle. There are some essential compounds required for the completion of this cycle, such as arginine, citrulline and ornithine. Arginine cleaves and creates urea and ornithine, and the reactions that follow see urea residue build up on ornithine, which recreates arginine and keeps the cycle going. Ornithine is transported to the mitochondrial matrix, and once there, ornithine carbamoyltransferase uses carbamoyl phosphate to create citrulline. After this, citrulline is transported to the cytosol. Once here, citrulline and aspartate team up to create argininosuccinic acid. After this, argininosuccinate lyase creates l-arginine. L-arginine finally uses arginase-1 to create ornithine again, which will be transported to the mitochondrial matrix and restart the urea cycle once more.


Pw000150 View Pathway

Starch and Sucrose Metabolism

Amylase enzymes secreted in saliva by the parotid gland and in the small intestine play an important role in initiating starch digestion. The products of starch digestion are but not limited to maltotriose, maltose, limit dextrin, and glucose. The action of enterocytes of the small intestine microvilli further break down limit dextrins and disaccharides into monosaccharides: glucose, galactose, and fructose. Once released from starch or once ingested, sucrose can be degraded into beta-D-fructose and alpha-D-glucose via lysosomal alpha-glucosidase or sucrose-isomaltase. Beta-D-fructose can be converted to beta-D-fructose-6-phosphate by glucokinase and then to alpha-D-glucose-6-phosphate by the action of glucose phosphate isomerase. Phosphoglucomutase 1 can then act on alpha-D-glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) to generate alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate. Alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate (G6P) has several possible fates. It can enter into gluconeogenesis, glycolysis or the nucleotide sugar metabolism pathway. UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase 2 can convert alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate into UDP-glucose, which can then be converted to UDP-xylose or UDP-glucuronate and, eventually to glucuronate. UDP-glucose can also serve as a precursor to the synthesis of glycogen via glycogen synthase. Glycogen is an analogue of amylopectin (“plant starch”) and acts as a secondary short-term energy storage for animal cells. It’s formed primarily in liver and muscle tissues, but is also formed at secondary sites such as the central nervous system and the stomach. In both cases it exists as free granules in the cytosol. Glycogen is a crucial element of the glucose cycle as another enzyme, glycogen phosphorylase, cleaves off glycogen from the nonreducing ends of a chain to producer glucose-1-phosphate monomers. From there, the glucose-1-phosphate monomers have three possible fates: (1) enter the glycolysis pathway as glucose-6—phosphate (G6P) to generate energy, (2) enter the pentose phosphate pathway to produce NADPH and pentose sugar, or (3) enter the gluconeogenesis pathway by being dephosphorylated into glucose in liver or kidney tissues. To initiate the process of glycogen chain-lengthening, glycogenin is required because glycogen synthase can only add to existing chains. This action is subsequently followed by the action of glycogen synthase which catalyzes the formation of polymers of UDP-glucose connected by (α1→4) glycosidic bonds to form a glycogen chain. Importantly, amylo (α1→4) to (α1→6) transglycosylase catalyzes glycogen branch formation via the transfer of 6-7 glucose residues from a nonreducing end with greater than 11 residues to the C-6 OH- group in the interior of a glycogen molecule.


Pw122325 View Pathway

Bloch Pathway (Cholesterol Biosynthesis)

The Bloch pathway, named after Konrad Bloch, is the pathway following the mevalonate pathway occurring within the cell to complete cholesterol biosynthesis. Cholesterol is a necessary metabolite that helps create many essential hormones within the human body. This pathway, combined with the mevalonate pathway is one of two ways to biosynthesize cholesterol; the Kandutsch-Russell pathway is an alternative pathway that uses different compounds than the Bloch Pathway beginning after lanosterol. The first three reactions occur in the endoplasmic reticulum. Lanosterol, a compound created through the mevalonate pathway, binds with the enzyme lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase to become 4,4-dimethyl-14a-hydroxymethyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol. Moving to the next reaction, 4,4-dimethyl-14a-hydroxymethyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol utilizes the enzyme lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase to create 4,4-dimethyl-14α-formyl-5α-cholesta-8,24-dien-3β-ol. Lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase is used one last time in this pathway, converting 4,4-dimethyl-14α-formyl-5α-cholesta-8,24-dien-3β-ol into 4,4-dimethyl-5a-cholesta-8,14,24-trien-3b-ol. Entering the inner nuclear membrane, 4,4-dimethyl-5a-cholesta-8,14,24-trien-3b-ol is catalyzed by a lamin B receptor to create 4,4-dimethyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3-b-ol. Entering the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, 4,4-dimethyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3-b-ol, with the help of methyl monooxygenase 1 is converted to 4a-hydroxymethyl-4b-methyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol. The enzyme methyl monooxygenase 1 uses 4a-hydroxymethyl-4b-methyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol to produce 4a-formyl-4b-methyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol. This reaction is repeated once more, using 4a-formyl-4b-methyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol and methyl monooxygenase 1 to create 4a-carboxy-4b-methyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol. Briefly entering the endoplasmic reticulum, 4a-carboxy-4b-methyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol then uses sterol-4-alpha-carboxylate-3-dehyrogenase to catalyze into 3-keto-4-methylzymosterol. Back in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, where the pathway will continue on for the remaining reactions, 3-keto-4-methylzymosterol combines with 3-keto-steroid reductase to create 4a-methylzymosterol. 4a-Methylzymosterol joins the enzyme methylsterol monooxgenase 1 to result in 4a-hydroxymethyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol. 4a-Hydroxymethyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol uses methylsterol monooxygenase 1 to convert to 4a-formyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol. 4a-Formyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol proceeds to use the same enzyme used in the previous reaction: methylsterol monooxygenase 1, to catalyze into 4a-carboxy-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol. Sterol-4-alpha-carboxylate-3-dehydrogenase is used alongside 4a-carboxy-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol to produce 5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3-one (also known as zymosterone). Zymosterone (5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3-one) teams up with 3-keto-steroid reductase to create zymosterol. Zymosterol proceeds to use the enzyme 3-beta-hydroxysteroid-delta(8),delta(7)-isomerase to catalyze into 5a-cholesta-7,24-dien-3b-ol. The compound 5a-cholesta-7,24-dien-3b-ol then joins lathosterol oxidase to convert to 7-dehydrodesmosterol. 7-Dehydrodesmosterol and the enzyme 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase come together to create desmosterol. This brings the pathway to the final reaction, where desmosterol combines with delta(24)-sterol reductase to finally convert to cholesterol.


Pw000047 View Pathway

Vitamin K Metabolism

Vitamin K describes a group of lipophilic, hydrophobic vitamins that exist naturally in two forms (and synthetically in three others): vitamin K1, which is found in plants, and vitamin K2, which is synthesized by bacteria. Vitamin K is an important dietary component because it is necessary as a cofacter in the activation of vitamin K dependent proteins. Metabolism of vitamin K occurs mainly in the liver. In the first step, vitamin K is reduced to its quinone form by a quinone reductase such as NAD(P)H dehydrogenase. Reduced vitamin K is the form required to convert vitamin K dependent protein precursors to their active states. It acts as a cofactor to the integral membrane enzyme vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylase (along with water and carbon dioxide as co-substrates), which carboxylates glutamyl residues to gamma-carboxy-glutamic acid residues on certain proteins, activating them. Each converted glutamyl residue produces a molecule of vitamin K epoxide, and certain proteins may have more than one residue requiring carboxylation. To complete the cycle, the vitamin K epoxide is returned to vitamin K via the vitamin K epoxide reductase enzyme, also an integral membrane protein. The vitamin K dependent proteins include a number of important coagulation factors, such as prothrombin. Thus, warfarin and other coumarin drugs act as anticoagulants by blocking vitamin K epoxide reductase.


Pw000167 View Pathway

Fatty Acid Biosynthesis

The biosynthesis of fatty acids primarily occurs in liver and lactating mammary glands. The entire synthesis process which produces palmitic acid occurs on a multifunctional dimeric protein Fatty Acid Synthase (FA) in the cytosol. The production of palmitic acid can be summarized as the successive addition of two carbons to an initial acetyl moiety primer. After 7 cycles palimitic acid is released. The synthesis starts with the sequential transfer of a primer substrate, acetyl-CoA, to the nucleophilic serine residue of the acyltransferase domain of FA. The acetyl moiety is then transferred to the Acyl Carrier Protein (ACP) domain of FA, then finally to the active site of the beta-ketoacyl synthase domain. A chain extender substrate, molonyl-CoA, is transferred to the nucleophilic serine residue of the acyltransferase domain and subsequently to the ACP domain. The acetyl moiety is extend by a condensation reaction, catalysed by the beta-ketoacyl synthase domain, that produces a new Carbon-Carbon bound, this reaction is coupled to a decarboxylation resulting in the production of carbon dioxide. Subsequently beta-ketoacyl condensation product is reduced to a saturated acyl moiety through the step wise action on the beta-ketoacyl reductase, beta-hydroxyacyl dehydrase and enoyl reductase domains respectively. This saturated acyl moiety is then transfer back to the active site of the beta-ketoacyl synthase domain, another molonyl-CoA is loaded and the process repeats. The addition of molonyl moieties occurs 7 times after which the final product is released by that action of thioesterase domain. The final product is 16 carbon long palmitic acid.


Pw000028 View Pathway

Ketone Body Metabolism

Ketone bodies are consisted of acetone, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate. In liver cells' mitochondria, acetyl-CoA can synthesize acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate; and spontaneous decarboxylation of acetoacetate will form acetone. Metabolism of ketone body (also known as ketogenesis) contains several reactions. Acetoacetic acid (acetoacetate) will be catalyzed to form acetoacetyl-CoA irreversibly by 3-oxoacid CoA-transferase 1 that also coupled with interconversion of succinyl-CoA and succinic acid. Acetoacetic acid can also be catalyzed by mitochondrial D-beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase to form (R)-3-Hydroxybutyric acid with NADH. Ketogenesis occurs mostly during fasting and starvation. Stored fatty acids will be broken down and mobilized to produce large amount of acetyl-CoA for ketogenesis in liver, which can reduce the demand of glucose for other tissues. Acetone cannot be converted back to acetyl-CoA; therefore, they are either breathed out through the lungs or excreted in urine.
Showing 11 - 20 of 49833 pathways